Self-determined Learning (Heutagogy) and Digital Media Creating integrated Educational Environments for Developing Lifelong Learning Skills
Defined as the study of self-determined learning, heutagogy is a learner-centered educational theory founded on the key principles of learner agency, self-efficacy, capability, and metacognition (knowing how to learn) and reflection. Combined with today’s technologies, the theory provides a framework for designing and developing learner-centered environments that have the potential to equip learners with the necessary skills for a lifetime of learning. In addition, application of heutagogy has been to shown to promote themes of both social responsibility and justice, as well as a more democratic educational process. This chapter outlines the fundamental principles of heutagogy, or self-determined learning, and describes ways in which the theory can be applied, taking into consideration the critical and changing roles played by the student, teacher, and institution in creating a holistic, self-determined learning environment. In addition, the chapter also identifies technologies – in particular social media – that can be used to support development of self-determined learning.
KeywordsHeutagogy Self-determined learning Social media Lifelong learning Self-directed learning
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Adam Becker, S., Cummins, M., Davis, A., Freeman, A., Hall Giesinger, C., & Ananthanarayanan, V. (2017). NMC Horizon Report: 2017 Higher Education Edition. Austin: The New Media Consortium.Google Scholar
- Anders, A. (2015). Theories and applications of massive online open courses (MOOCs): The case for hybrid design. International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning 16(6), 39-61.Google Scholar
- Anderson, T. (2010). Theories for learning with emerging technologies. In G. Veletsianos (Ed.), Emerging technologies in distance education. Edmonton: Athabasca University Press. URL: http://www.aupress.ca/books/120177/ebook/02_Veletsianos_2010-Emerging_Technologies_in_Distance_Education.pdf. Last accessed: 04 April 2017
- Andrews, J. (2014). From obstacle to opportunity: Using government-mandated curriculm change as a springboard for changes in learning and teaching. In L. M. Blaschke, C. Kenyon, & S. Hase, Experiences in self-determined learning (pp. 171-186). USA: Amazon.com.
- Argyris, C., & Schön, D. (1978). Organizational learning: A theory of action perspective. Reading: Addison Wesley.Google Scholar
- Bandura, A. (1993). Perceived self-efficacy in cognitive development and functioning. Educational Psychology 28(2), 117-148.Google Scholar
- Blaschke, L. M. (2012). Heutagogy and lifelong learning: A review of heutagogical practice and self-determined learning. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning 13(1), 56-71. URL: http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/1076/2113. Last accessed: 3 April 2017.
- Blaschke, L. M. (2013). E-learning and self-determined learning skills. In S. Hase & C. Kenyon, (Eds.), Self-determined learning: Heutagogy in action (pp. 55-68). London: Bloomsbury Academic.Google Scholar
- Blaschke, L. M. (2014a). Moving forward in the PAH continuum: Maximizing the power of the social web. In L. M. Blaschke, C. Kenyon, & S. Hase (Eds.). Experiences in self-determined learning (pp. 49-62). USA: Amazon.com.
- Blaschke, L. M. (2014b). Using social media to engage and develop online learners in selfdetermined learning. Research in Learning Technology. URL: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.3402/rlt.v22.21635. Last accessed: 03 April 2017.
- Blaschke, L. M. (2016). Self-determined learning: Designing for heutagogic learning environments. In J. Elen, & G. Clarebout (Eds.), Learning, Design, and Technology. An International Compendium of Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy (pp. 25-40). Heidelberg: VS Springer.Google Scholar
- Blaschke, L., & Brindley, J. (2011). Establishing a foundation for reflective practice: A case study of learning journal use. European Journal of Open, Distance, and E-Learning. URL: http://www.eurodl.org/materials/special/2011/Blaschke_Brindley.pdf. Last accessed: 06 April 2017.
- Blaschke, L. M. & Brindley, J. (2015). Using social media in the online classroom. In M. Ally & B. Khan (Eds.), The international handbook of e-learning (volume 2): Implementation and case studies. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Blaschke, L. M., & Hase, S. (2015). Heutagogy: A holistic framework for creating 21st century self-determined learners. In M. M. Kinshuk & B. Gros (Eds.), The future of ubiquitous learning: Learning designs for emerging pedagogies (pp. 25-40). Heidelberg: VS Springer.Google Scholar
- Brandt, B. (2013). The learner’s perspective. In S. Hase, & C. Kenyon (Eds.), Self-determined learning: Heutagogy in action (pp. 99-116). London: Bloomsbury Academic.Google Scholar
- Chawinga, W. D. (2017). Taking social media to a university classroom: Teaching and learning using Twitter and blogs. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education 14(3). doi: 10.1186/s41239-017-0041-6.
- Cochrane, T., Antonczak, L., Keegan, H., & Narayan, V. (2014). Riding the wave of BYOD: Developing a framework for creative pedagogies. Research in Learning Technologies 22. doi: 10.3402/rlt.v22.24637.
- Cochrane, T., & Bateman, R. (2010). Smartphones give you wings: Pedagogical affordances of mobile web 2.0. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology 26(1), 1-14.Google Scholar
- Conole, G. (2012). Designing for learning in an open world: Explorations in the learning sciences, instructional systems and performance technologies. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
- Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2002). The handbook of self-determination research. Rochester: The University of Rochester Press.Google Scholar
- Dweck, C. S. (2006). Mindset: The new psychology of success. New York: Random House. Frey, S. (2016). Putting students in charge of their learning transforms a small rural district. EdSource: Highlighting Strategies for Student Success. URL: https://edsource.org/2016/putting-students-in-charge-of-their-learning-transforms-a-small-rural-district/565269. Last accessed: 06 April 2017.
- Garnett, F. (2013). The PAH continuum: Pedagogy, andragogy, and heutagogy. (Blog post). Heutagogy Community of Practice. URL: https://heutagogycop.wordpress.com/2013/03/04/the-pah-continuum-pedagogy-andragogy-heutagogy/. Last accessed: 06 April 2017.
- Gerstein, J. (2013). Education 3.0 and the pedagogy (andragogy, heutagogy) of mobile learning. (Blog post). User generated education. URL http://usergeneratededucation.wordpress.com/2013/05/13/education-3-0-and-the-pedagogy-andragogy-heutagogy-of-mobile-learning/. Last Accessed: 06 April 2017.
- Glisczinski, D. J. (2010). Sustainability in the synapses: Neuroplasticity and transformative learning. In P. Cranton, E. Taylor & J. Tyler (Eds.), Eight International Transformative Learning Conference Peer Reviewed Proceedings. URL: http://www.d.umn.edu/~dglisczi/
- Glisczinski/Glisczinski(2010)SustainSynapses.pdf. Last accessed: 06 April 2017.Google Scholar
- Halupa, C. (2017). Reaching ‘creating’ in Bloom’s taxonomy: The merging of heutagogy and technology in online learning. In C. Zhou (Ed.), Handbook of research on creative problem-solving skill development in higher education (pp. 429-449). USA: IGI Global.Google Scholar
- Hase, S. (2013). Providing a compass: Neuroscience & heutagogy. (Blog post). Heutagogy Community of Practice. URL: https://heutagogycop.wordpress.com/2013/03/31/providing-a-compass-neuroscience-heutagogy/. Last accessed: 06 April 2017.
- Hase, S. (2016). Self-determined learning (heutagogy): Where have we come since 2000? Special Edition of Southern Institute of Technology Journal of Applied Research. URL: from: https://www.sit.ac.nz/Portals/0/upload/documents/sitjar/Heutagogy%20-%20One.pdf. Last accessed: 06 April 2017.
- Hase, S., & Kenyon, C. (2001). From andragogy to heutagogy. Ultibase articles 5(3), 1-10.Google Scholar
- Hase, S. & Kenyon, C. (2007). Heutagogy: A child of complexity theory. Complicity: An International Journal of Complexity and Education 4(1), 111-119.Google Scholar
- Hase, S., & Kenyon, C. (2016). Shifting from pedagogy to heutagogy in education. (Blog post.) Teach-Thought.com. URL: http://www.teachthought.com/learning/self-directed-learning/shifting-from-pedagogy-to-heutagogy-in-education/. Last accessed: 06 April 2017.
- Hexom, D. (2014). Heutagogy and the impact on adult learning in higher education. In L. M. Blaschke, C. Kenyon & S. Hase (Eds.), Experiences in self-determined learning (pp. 137-148). USA: Amazon.com.Google Scholar
- Hicks, A., & Sinkinson, C. (2015). Critical connections: Personal learning environments and information literacy. Research in Learning Technology 23. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/rlt.v23.21193.
- Knowles, M. (1975). Self-directed learning: A guide for learners and teachers. Cambridge: Cambridge Adult Education.Google Scholar
- Kools, M., & L. Stoll (2016). What Makes a School a Learning Organisation? OECD Education Working Papers No. 137. doi: 10.1787/5jlwm62b3bvh-en.
- Luckin, R., Clark, W., Garnett, F., Whitworth, A., Akass, J., & Cook, J. (2010). Learnergenerated contexts: A framework to support the effective use of technology for learning. In M. Lee & C. McLoughlin (Eds.), Web 2.0-based e-learning: Applying social informatics for tertiary teaching (pp. 70-84). Hershey: IGI Global.Google Scholar
- Maslow, A. H. (1943). A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review 50, 370-396.Google Scholar
- McLoughlin, C., & Lee, M. J. W. (2007). Social software and participatory learning: Pedagogical choices with technology affordances in the Web 2.0 era. ICT: Providing choices for learners and learning. Proceedings ascilite Singapore 2007 (pp. 664-675). URL: http://www.ascilite.org.au/conferences/singapore07/procs/mcloughlin.pdf. Last accessed: 06 April 2017.
- Mezirow, J., & et al. (1990). Fostering critical reflection in adulthood: A guide to transformative and emancipatory learning. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.Google Scholar
- Nkuyubwatsi, B. (2016). Activating and nurturing the investment of heutagogical resources for equity and quality in self-determine open online and distance learning. Commonwealth of Learning. URL: http://oasis.col.org/handle/11599/2631. Last accessed: 06 April 2017.
- Oliver, E. (2016). A move towards heutagogy to empower theology students. HTS Teologiese Studies/Theological Studies 72(1). doi: 10.4102/hts.v72i1.3394.
- Price, D. (2014). Heutagogy and social communities of practice: Will self-determined learning rewrite the script for educators? In L. M. Blaschke, C. Kenyon, & S. Hase (Eds.), Experiences in self-determined learning (pp. 111-118). USA: Amazon.com.Google Scholar
- Sani, R. (2017). Tertiary education redesigned. New Straits Times: Malaysia General Business sports and Lifestyle News. URL: http://www.nst.com.my/news/2017/03/206101/tertiary-education-redesigned. Last accessed: 06 April 2017.
- Sharpe, R., Beetham, H., & de Freitas, S. (2010). Rethinking learning for a digital age: How learners are shaping their own experiences. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Schnellert, L., & Butler, D. L. (2016). Teachers and self-and co-regulating learners. Psychology Today. URL: https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/psyched/201612/teachers-self-and-co-regulating-learners. Last accessed: 06 April 2017.
- Schön, D. A. (1983). The reflective practitioner: How professionals think in action. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
- Stephenson, J., & Weil, S. (1992). Quality in learning: A capability approach in higher education. London: Kogan Page.Google Scholar
- Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
- World Economic Forum (2016). New vision for education: Fostering social and emotional learning through technology. URL: http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_New_Vision_for_Education.pdf. Last accessed: 06 April 2017.