Study 3: Corporate Reputation Perceptions Across Nations: The Role of National Culture
Culture is one of the most observed context variables in international marketing, and MNCs are highly aware of the importance of countries’ cultural differences (e.g., even using them as a source of innovation, such as Nissan; Emerson 2001). National culture is, in general, a common set of values that describes a society as a whole and that is expressed within a nation through similar perceptions and behaviors (de Mooij 2013; Sivakumar and Nakata 2001). However, cultural value approaches, e.g., those of Hofstede (1980), Schwartz (1994), the GLOBE study (House et al. 2004) or Inglehart (1997), propose different conceptualizations of national cultural.
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