Advertisement

From Interaction to Integration?

Transnational Scientific Communities in Biology
Chapter
  • 125 Downloads

Abstract

In the biological sciences, various transnational networks, clubs, and scientific organisations have shaped cooperation and influenced political integration. This chapter presents case studies on early modern naturalists’ correspondence, on networks of evolutionary biologists, of the marine station in Naples as a centre of communities of experimentalists, and the foundation of the European Molecular Biology Organisation, suggesting the following insights: First, from the early modern period on, transnational scientific communities of a self-described or implicit European character can be identified, though the sustainability and impact of these communities’ Europeanness seems uneven. Second, some of these communities contribute to a European identity and cause spillover effects of varying quality. Third, some developments exemplify the Haasian neofunctionalist logic of “spillovers” and help to explain how processes of scientific community-building can be understood as processes that are both self-reinforcing (leading to intensified scientific cooperation) and motivate further political integration. Still, the shift of scientists’ loyalties to a European level seems incomplete at best, since frequently scientists still need incentives in order to be brought to cooperate with partners from other European countries. Fourth, we find that in general, science turns to politics for funds, and politics to science for “innovation” and prestige. Overall, effects of science for promoting European identity exist but are quite limited.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Barton, Ruth. 1998. “Huxley, Lubbock, and half a dozen others”: Professionals and gentlemen in the formation of the X Club, 1851–1864. Isis 89: 410–444.  https://doi.org/10.1086/384072.
  2. Bekemans, Léonce. 2014. The idea of Europe: Identity-building from a historical perspective. In Transfigurations of the European identity, ed. Bulcsu Bognár and Zsolt Almási, 21–41. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.Google Scholar
  3. Cahan, David. 2003. Institutions and communities. In From natural philosophy to the sciences: Writing the history of nineteenth-century science, ed. David Cahan, 291–328. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  4. Cairns, John, Gunther S. Stent, and James D. Watson, ed. 2007. Phage and the origins of molecular biology. Centennial ed. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.Google Scholar
  5. Darwin, Charles. 1859. On the origin of species by means of natural selection: Or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London: John Murray.Google Scholar
  6. Egmond, Florike. 2007. A European community of scholars: exchange and friendship among early modern natural historians. In Finding Europe: Discourses on margins, communities, images ca. 13th – ca. 18th centuries, ed. Anthony Molho and Diogo Ramada Curto, 159–183. New York: Berghahn Books.Google Scholar
  7. Engels, Eve-Marie, and Thomas F. Glick, ed. 2008. The reception of Charles Darwin in Europe. 2 vols. London: Continuum.Google Scholar
  8. Fantini, Bernardino. 2004. The “Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn” and the history of embryology. International Journal of Developmental Biology 44: 523–535.Google Scholar
  9. Ferry, Georgina. 2014. EMBO in perspective: A half-century in the life sciences. Heidelberg: European Molecular Biology Organization.Google Scholar
  10. Fiske, John. 1939. The personal letters of John Fiske. Cedar Rapids, IA: Torch Press.Google Scholar
  11. Groeben, Christiane. 1985. Anton Dohrn – the statesman of Darwinism: To commemorate the 75th anniversary of the death of Anton Dohrn. Biological Bulletin 168: 4–25.  https://doi.org/10.2307/1541316.
  12. Groeben, Christiane. 2006. The Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn as a place for the circulation of scientific ideas: Vision and management. In Information for responsible fisheries: libraries as mediators, ed. Kristen L. Anderson and Cecile Thiery. Fort Pierce, FL: International Association of Marine Science Libraries and Information Centers.Google Scholar
  13. Haas, Ernst B. 1958. The uniting of Europe: Political, social and economic forces 1950–1957. London: Stevens.Google Scholar
  14. MacLeod, Roy M. 1970. The X-Club: A social network of science in late-Victorian England. Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London 24: 305–322.Google Scholar
  15. Mayr, Ernst. 1982. The growth of biological thought: Diversity, evolution, and inheritance. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press.Google Scholar
  16. Richards, Robert J. 2008. The tragic sense of life: Ernst Haeckel and the struggle over evolutionary thought. Chicago, IL: Univ. of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  17. Sommerey, Constance. 2014. “Illegal science”: The case of Ernst Haeckel (1834–1919) and German biology education. http://www.shellsandpebbles.com/2014/08/04/illegal-science-the-case-of-ernst-haeckel-1834-1919-and-german-biology-education/.
  18. Storch, Volker, Ulrich Welsch, and Michael Wink. 2013. Evolutionsbiologie. 3rd ed. Berlin: Springer Spektrum.Google Scholar
  19. Strasser, Bruno J. 2002. Institutionalizing molecular biology in post-war Europe: A comparative study. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 33: 515–546.  https://doi.org/10.1016/s1369-8486(02)00016-x.
  20. Strasser, Bruno J. 2003. The transformation of the biological sciences in post-war Europe. EMBO Reports 4: 540–543.  https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.embor.embor879.
  21. Tooze, John. 1986. The role of European Molecular Biology Organization (EMBO) and European Molecular Biology Conference (EMBC) in European molecular biology (1970–1983). Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 29: S38–S46.  https://doi.org/10.1353/pbm.1986.0017.
  22. Voltaire. 2016. Siècle de Louis XIV (VI): Chapitres 31–39. Edited by Diego Venturino. The Complete Works of Voltaire 13D. Oxford: Voltaire Foundation.Google Scholar
  23. Wang, Tom C. 2015. Science diplomacy: Transatlantic asset and competition. In Smarter power: the key to a strategic transatlantic partnership, ed. Aude Jehan and András Simonyi, 147–154. Washington, DC: Center for Transatlantic Relations.Google Scholar
  24. White, Paul. 2008. Correspondence as a medium of reception and appropriation. In The reception of Charles Darwin in Europe, ed. Eve-Marie Engels and Thomas F. Glick, 54–65. London: Continuum.Google Scholar
  25. Ytreland, Ingrid. 2009. Connecting Europe through research collaborations? A case study of the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. University of Oslo. https://www.duo.uio.no/handle/10852/17892

Copyright information

© Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of DundeeDundeeScotland

Personalised recommendations