Conventional electronics has reached over the past few years a fundamental limit, which restricts the clock speed from significantly exceeding 3.5 GHz [1, 2] (see Fig. 1.1). To overcome this limitation, the control of electronic motion in signal processing by light pulses has been proposed  and called lightwave electronics. The period of light lies on the order of 1 fs, which would allow clock speeds 5-6 orders of magnitude faster than current state-of-the-art conventional electronics.
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