Racialized Masculinity and Sport Media

Part of the Geschlecht und Gesellschaft book series (GUG, volume 59)


Since its earliest beginnings, sport media in the United States has been preoccupied with questions of social hierarchy. Given the overwhelming tendency of sport media to ignore female participants, its work tends to glorify particular versions of masculinity. Accounts celebrated (and still celebrate) what Michael Messner (Out of play: Critical essays on gender and sport, State University of New York Press, Albany, 2007) calls the “extreme possibilities of the male body”, often with a barely disguised erotic subtext (p. 42).


  1. Andrews, David L. 2001. The fact(s) of Michael Jordan’s blackness: Excavating a floating racial signifier. In Michael Jordan, Inc. Corporate Sport, Media Culture, and Late Modern America, ed. David L. Andrews. Albany: State University of New York Press. World’s fair bulletin. 1904. A novel athletic contest. 5. September.Google Scholar
  2. Banet-Weiser, Sarah. 1999. Hoop dreams: Professional basketball and the politics of race and gender. Journal of Sport and Social Issues 24 (4): 403–421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bass, Amy. 2004. Not the triumph but the struggle: 1968 Olympics and the making of the black athlete. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  4. Bederman, Gail. 1995. Manliness and civilization: A cultural history of gender and race in the United States, 1880–1917. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Boyd, Todd. 2003. Young, black, rich and famous: The rise of the NBA, the hip-hop invasion and the transformation of American culture. New York: Doubleday.Google Scholar
  6. Burgos, Adrian. 2007. Playing America’s game: Baseball, Latinos, and the color line. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  7. Carrington, Ben. 2010. Race, sport and politics: The sporting black diaspora. Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  8. Connell, Raewyn W. 2005. Masculinities. Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar
  9. Cooky, Cheryl, Michael Messner and Robin Hextrum. 2013. Women play sport, but not on TV: A longitudinal study of televised news media. Communication and Sport 1 (3): 203–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fiske, John. 1989. Television culture. New York: Methuen.Google Scholar
  11. Gross, Jane. 1984. NBA’s rebuilding program is showing results. New York Times, 23. December.Google Scholar
  12. Hartmann, Douglas. 2004. Race, culture, and the revolt of the black athlete. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  13. Hoberman, John. 1997. Darwin’s athletes: How sport has damaged black America and preserved the myth of race. New York: Mariner Books.Google Scholar
  14. Holland, Sharon Patricia. 2012. The erotic life of racism. Durham: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Johnson, Leola and David Roediger. 1997. Hertz, don’t it: Becoming colorless and staying black in the crossover of OJ Simpson. In Birth of a nation’hood: Gaze, script, and spectacle in the OJ Simpson case, eds. Toni Morrison and Claudia B. Lacour. New York: Pantheon.Google Scholar
  16. Kellner, Douglas. 1996. Sports, media culture and race—some reflections on Michael Jordan. Sociology of Sport Journal 13:458–467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kusz, Kyle. 2007. Revolt of the white athletes: Race, media and the emergence of extreme athletes in America. New York: Lang.Google Scholar
  18. Lamb, Chris. 2012. Conspiracy of silence: Sportswriters and the long campaign to desegregate baseball. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  19. Leonard, David J. 2012. After Artest: The NBA and the assault on blackness. Albany: SUNY.Google Scholar
  20. Leonard, David J. and C. Richard King. 2011. Introduction: Celebrities, commodities and criminals: African American athletes and the racial politics of culture. In Commodified and criminalized: New racism and African Americans in contemporary sports, eds. David J. Leonard and C. Richard King. Lantham: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  21. McDonald, Mary and David L. Andrews. 2001. Michael Jordan: Corporate sport and postmodern celebrity. In Sport stars: The cultural politics of sporting celebrity, eds. David L. Andrews and Steven J. Jackson, 20–35. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  22. Messner, Michael. 2007. Out of play: Critical essays on gender and sport. Albany: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  23. Messner, Michael, Michele Dunbar and Darnell Hunt. 2000. The televised sports manhood formula. Journal of Sport and Social Issues 24 (4): 380–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Moffi, Larry and Jonathan Kronstadt. 1994. Crossing the line: Black major leaguers, 1947–1959. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  25. Montez de Oca, Jeffery. 2013. Discipline and indulgence: College football, media, and the American way of life during the Cold War. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Morse, Margaret. 2003. Sport on television: Replay and display. In Television: Critical concepts in media and cultural studies, ed. Toby Miller, 376–398. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  27. Oates, Thomas P. 2009. New media and the repackaging of NFL fandom. Sociology of Sport Journal 26 (1): 31–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Oriard, Michael. 1993. Reading football: How the popular press created an American spectacle. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
  29. Price, S.L. 1997. Whatever happened to the white athlete? Sports Illustrated, 8. December, 30–42.Google Scholar
  30. Real, Michael. 1975. Super Bowl: Mythic spectacle. Journal of Communication 25 (1): 31–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Reel, Guy. 2006. The National Police Gazette and the making of the modern American man, 1879–1906. New York: Palgrave-MacMillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Remnick, David. 1998. King of the world: Muhammad Ali and the rise of an American hero. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  33. Rhoden, William C. 2007. Third and a mile: From Fritz Pollard to Michael Vick: An oral history of the trials, tears, and triumphs of the black quarterback. New York: ESPN.Google Scholar
  34. Runstedtler, Theresa. 2005. In sports the best man wins: How Joe Louis whupped Jim Crow. In In the game: Race, identity and sports in the twentieth century, ed. Amy Bass, 47–92. New York: Palgrave-MacMillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Silber, Irwin. 2003. Press box red: The story of Ronald Lester. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Skipper, John C. 2014. Frank Robinson: A baseball biography. Jefferson: McFarland.Google Scholar
  37. Smith, Thomas G. 2012. Showdown: JFK and the integration of the Washington Redskins. Boston: Beacon.Google Scholar
  38. Streible, Dan. 2008. Fight pictures: A history of boxing and early cinema. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  39. Trujillo, Nick. 1991. Hegemonic masculinity on the mound: Media representations of Nolan Ryan and American sports culture. Critical Studies in Media Communication 8 (3): 290–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ward, Geoffery C. 2006. Unforgivable blackness: The rise and fall of Jack Johnson. New York: Vintage.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Iowa CityUSA

Personalised recommendations