Advertisement

Superleadership und Empowering Leadership

  • Marco Furtner
  • Urs Baldegger
Chapter

Zusammenfassung

Die transformationale und charismatische Führung dominieren die Führungsforschung bereits seit über drei Jahrzehnten ( = New Leadership Approach). Im Mittelpunkt steht die heroische Führungskraft, welche als Einzelperson zentralen Einfluss auf das Schicksal einer Organisation nimmt (Heroic Leadership). Reicher et al. (2005) kritisieren hierbei, dass immer mehrere Personen für die Führung und das Schicksal einer Organisation verantwortlich sind und weniger eine einzelne charismatische Führungsperson („a Great Man“). Crevani et al. (2007) verstehen unter Leadership immer das Zusammenwirken von zwei oder mehreren Personen. Pearce und Manz (2014) sehen eine große Gefahr für Organisationen darin, sich nur auf eine visionäre („heldenhafte“) Führungskraft zu fokussieren: Die Macht wird zentralisiert und dadurch kann die Organisation erheblich Schaden erleiden (z. B. unethisches und antisoziales Verhalten). Diesbezüglich sprechen die Autoren überspitzt von einer „Führungskrankheit“, welche die nötige „medikamentöse“ Behandlung erfordert: Self-Leadership und Shared Leadership.

Literatur

  1. Adams, J. S. (1963). Wage inequities, productivity, and work quality. Industrial Relations, 3, 916.Google Scholar
  2. Ahearne, M., Mathieu, J., & Rapp, A. (2005). To empower or not to empower your sales force? An empirical examination of the influence of leadership empowerment behavior on customer satisfaction and performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90, 945–955.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Amundsen, S., & Martinsen, O. L. (2014). Empowering leadership: Construct clarification, conceptualization, and validation of a new scale. The Leadership Quarterly, 25, 487–511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Amundsen, S. & Martinsen, O. L. (im Druck). Linking empowering leadership to job satisfaction, work effort, and creativity: The role of self-leadership and psychological empowerment. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies. doi:10.1177/1548051814565819.Google Scholar
  5. Andreßen, P., Konradt, U., & Neck, C. P. (2012). The relation between self-leadership and transformational leadership: Competing models and the moderating role of virtuality. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 19, 68–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Arnold, J. A., Arad, S., Rhoades, J. A., & Drasgow, F. (2000). The empowering leadership questionnaire: The construction and validation of a new scale for measuring leader behaviors. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 21, 249–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Aryee, S., & Chen, Z. X. (2006). Leader-member exchange in a Chinese context: Antecedents, the mediating role of psychological empowerment and outcomes. Journal of Business Research, 59, 793–801.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Avolio, B. J. (2011). Full range leadership development, 2. Aufl. Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  9. Avolio, B. J., Walumbwa, F. O., & Weber, T. J. (2009). Leadership: Current theories, research and future direction. Annual Review of Psychology, 60, 421–449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ball, G. A., Sims, H. P., & Trevino, L. K. (1994). Just and unjust punishment: Influences on subordinate performance and citizenship. The Academy of Management Journal, 37, 299–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  12. Bandura, A. (1991). Social cognitive theory and self-regulation. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 248–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Barbuto, J. E. (2005). Motivation and transactional, charismatic, and transformational leadership: A test of antecedents. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 11, 26–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Barbuto, J. E., Fritz, S. M., & Marx, D. (2002). A field study examining two measures of work motivation for predicting leaders’ influence tactics. The Journal of Social Psychology, 142, 601–616.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bass, B. M. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  16. Bass, B. M., Avolio, B. J., Jung, D. I., & Berson, Y. (2003). Predicting unit performance by assessing transformational and transactional leadership. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 207–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Baumeister, R. F., & Vohs, K. D. (2007). Self-regulation, ego depletion, and motivation. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 1, 115–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bergman, J. Z., Rentsch, J. R., Small, E. E., Davenport, S. W., & Bergman, S. M. (2012). The shared leadership process in decision-making teams. The Journal of Social Psychology, 152, 17–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bligh, M. C., Pearce, C. L., & Kohles, J. C. (2006). The importance of self- and shared leadership in team based knowledge work. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 21, 296–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bono, J. E., & Judge, T. A. (2004). Personality and transformational and transactional leadership: A meta analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(5), 901–910.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Breevaart, K., Bakker, A. B., Demerouti, E., & Derks, D. (im Druck). Who takes the lead? A multi-source diary study on leadership, work engagement, and job performance. Journal of Organizational Behavior. doi:10.1002/job.2041.Google Scholar
  22. Burke, C. S., Stagl, K. C., Klein, C., Goodwin, G. F., Salas, E., & Halpin, S. (2006). What type of leadership behaviors are functional in teams? A meta-analysis. The Leadership Quarterly, 17, 288–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Burns, J. M. (1978). Leadership. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  24. Carless, S. A. (2004). Does psychological empowerment mediate the relationship between psychological climate and job satisfaction? Journal of Business and Psychology, 18, 405–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Carmeli, A., Schaubröck, J., & Tishler, A. (2011). How CEO empowering leadership shapes top management team processes: Implications for firm performance. The Leadership Quarterly, 22, 399–411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Carson, J. B., Tesluk, P. E., & Marrone, J. A. (2007). Shared leadership in teams: An investigation of antecedent conditions and performance. Academy of Management Journal, 50, 1217–1234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Chen, G., Sharma, P. N., Edinger, S. K., Shapiro, D. L., & Farth, J.-L. (2011). Motivating and demotivating forces in teams: Cross-level influences of empowering leadership and relationship conflict. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96, 541–557.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Chung, A., Chen, I.-H., Yun-Ping Lee, A., Chun Chen, H., & Lin, Y. (2011). Charismatic leadership and self-leadership: A relationship of substitution or supplementation in the contexts of internalization and identification? Journal of Organizational Change Management, 24, 299–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Clement, R. W. (2006). Just how unethical is American business? Business Horizons, 49, 313–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Cox, J. F. (1993). The effects of superleadership training on leader behavior, subordinate self-leadership behavior, and subordinate citizenship. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland.Google Scholar
  31. Cox, J. F., Pearce, C. L., & Sims, H. P. (2003). Toward a broader agenda for leadership development: Extending the traditional transactional-transformational duality by developing directive, empowering and shared leadership skills. In R. E. Riggio & S. Murphy (Hrsg.), The future of leadership development (S. 161–179). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  32. Crevani, L., Lindgren, M., & Packendorff, J. (2007). Shared leadership: A postheroic perspective on leadership as a collective construction. International Journal of Leadership Studies, 3, 40–67.Google Scholar
  33. Cunha, M. P., Pacheco, M., Castanheira, F., & Rego, A. (im Druck). Reflexive work and the duality of self-leadership. Leadership. doi:10.1177/1742715015606511.Google Scholar
  34. Dewettinck, K., & van Ameijde, M. (2011). Linking leadership empowerment behavior to employee attitudes and behavioural intentions. Personnel Review, 40, 284–305.Google Scholar
  35. Elloy, D. F. (2005). The influence of superleader behaviors on organization commitment, job satisfaction and organization self-esteem in a self-managed work team. Leadership and Organizational Development Journal, 26, 120–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Elloy, D. F. (2006). Superleader behaviors and self-managed work teams: Perceptions of supervisory behaviors, satisfaction with growth, and team functions. Journal of Business and Economics Research, 4, 97–102.Google Scholar
  37. Ensley, M. E., Hmieleski, K., & Pearce, C. L. (2006). The importance of vertical and shared leadership within new venture top management teams: Implications for the performance of startups. The Leadership Quarterly, 17, 217–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Erez, M., & Arad, R. (1986). Participative goal-setting: Social, motivational, and cognitive factors. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 591–597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Fausing, M. S., Joensson, T. S., Lewandowski, J., & Blight, M. (2015). Antecedents of shared leadership: Empowering leadership and interdependence. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 36, 271–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Felfe, J., & Schyns, B. (2006). Personality and the perception of transformational leadership: The impact of extraversion, neuroticism, personal need for structure, and occupational self-efficacy. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 36(3), 708–739.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Fleishman, E. A. (1953). The description of supervisory behavior. Personnel Psychology, 37, 1–6.Google Scholar
  42. Fletcher, J. K. (2004). The paradox of postheroic leadership: An essay on gender, power, and transformational change. The Leadership Quarterly, 15, 647–661.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Furtner, M. R. (2010). Transformationales (Self-)Leadership: Self-Leadership und Transformationale Führung. Zeitschrift für KMU und Entrepreneurship, 58, 289–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Furtner, M. R. (2012). Self-Leadership: Assoziationen zwischen Self-Leadership, Selbstregulation, Motivation und Leadership. Lengerich: Pabst Science Publishers.Google Scholar
  45. Furtner, M. R., & Rauthmann, J. F. (2010). Relations between self-leadership and scores on the Big Five. Psychological Reports, 107, 339–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Furtner, M. R., & Sachse, P. (2011). Self-Leadership Training – Wirksamkeitsprüfung mit qualitativ-quantitativer Methodenkombination. Wirtschaftspsychologie, 13, 102–112.Google Scholar
  47. Furtner, M. R., Martini, M., & Sachse, P. (2011). Intrinsische Motivation, Self-Leadership und Selbstregulation in der Mensch-Computer Interaktion. In S. Schmid, M. Elepfandt, J. Adenauer, & A. Lichtenstein (Hrsg.), Reflexionen und Visionen der Mensch-Maschine-Interaktion – Aus der Vergangenheit lernen, Zukunft gestalten (S. 222–227). Düsseldorf: VDI Verlag.Google Scholar
  48. Furtner, M. R., Riedmüller, K., Baldegger, U., & Zäch, S. (2012). Superleadership: Stufen zur erfolgreichen Selbst- und Mitarbeiterführung in der Organisation des 21. Jahrhunderts. In J. Smettan, F. Schreiber, L. Olos, C. Riegel, & W. Grieshop (Hrsg.), Erfolg durch Kompetenz: Best Practice in der Wirtschaftspsychologie (S. 77–87). Berlin: Deutscher Psychologen Verlag.Google Scholar
  49. Furtner, M. R., Baldegger, U., & Rauthmann, J. F. (2013). Leading yourself and leading others: Linking self-leadership to transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 22, 436–449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Furtner, M. R., Rauthmann, J. F., & Sachse, P. (2015). Unique self-leadership: A bifactor model approach. Leadership, 11, 105–125.Google Scholar
  51. Grille, A., Schulte, E.-M., & Kauffeld, S. (im Druck). Promoting shared leadership: A multilevel analysis investigating the role of protopypical team leader beahvior, psychological empowerment, and fair rewards. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies. doi:10.1177/1548051815570039.Google Scholar
  52. Hackman, J. R., & Wageman, R. (2005). A theory of team coaching. Academy of Management Review, 30, 269–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Halpin, A. W., & Winer, B. J. (1957). A factorial study of the leader behavior descriptions. In R. M. Stogdill & E. A. Coons (Hrsg.), Leader behavior: Its description and measurement. Columbus: Ohio State University, Bureau of Business Research.Google Scholar
  54. Hartnell, C. A., & Walumbwa, F. O. (2011). Transformational leadership and organizational culture. In N. Ashkanasy, C. P. M. Wilderom, & M. F. Peterson (Hrsg.), Handbook of organizational culture and climate (S. 225–248). Thousand Oaks: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hassan, S., Mahsud, R., Yukl, G., & Prussia, G. E. (2013). Ethical and empowering leadership and leader effectiveness. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 28, 133–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Heatherton, T. F. & Vohs, K. D. (1998). Why is it so difficult to inhibit behavior? Psychological Inquiry, 9, 212–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Higgins, E. T., & Maciariello, J. A. (2004). Leading complex collaboration in network organizations: A multidisciplinary approach. Advances in Interdisciplinary Studies of Work Teams, 10, 203–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Hoch, J. E. (2013). Shared leadership and innovation: The role of vertical leadership and employee integrity. Journal of Business Psychology, 28, 159–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Hoch, J. E., & Kozlowski, W. J. (2014). Leading virtual teams: Hierarchical leadership, structural supports, and shared team leadership. Journal of Applied Psychology, 99, 390–403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Hoch, J. E., Pearche, C. L., & Welzel, L. (2010). Is the most effective team leadership shared? The impact of shared leadership, age diversity, and coordination of team performance. Journal of Personnel Psychology, 9, 105–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Houghton, J. D., & Yoho, S. K. (2005). Toward a contingency model of leadership and psychological empowerment: When should self-leadership be encouraged? Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 11, 65–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Houghton, J. D., Neck, C. P., & Manz, C. C. (2003). Self-leadership and superleadership: The heart and art of facilitating shared leadership. In C. L. Pearce & J. A. Conger (Hrsg.), Shared leadership: Reframing the how’s and why’s of leadership (S. 123–140). Thousands Oaks: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. House, R. J. (1971). A path goal theory of leader effectiveness. Administrative Science Quarterly, 16, 321–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. House, R. J. (1977). A 1976 theory of charismatic leadership. In J. G. Hunt & L. L. Larson (Hrsg.), Leadership: The cutting edge (S. 189–207). Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.Google Scholar
  65. House, R. J., & Howell, J. M. (1992). Personality and charismatic leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 3, 81–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. House, R. J., & Mitchell, T. R. (1974). Path-goal theory of leadership. Journal of Contemporary Business, 3, 81–97.Google Scholar
  67. Ilies, R., Morgeson, F. P., & Nahrgang, J. D. (2005). Authentic leadership and eudaemonic well-being: Understand leader-follower outcomes. The Leadership Quarterly, 16, 373–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Ismail, A., Mohamed, A.-B., Sulaiman, A. Z., Mohamad, M. H., & Yusuf, M. H. (2011). An empirical study of the relationship between transformational leadership, empowerment and organizational commitment. Business and Economics Research Journal, 2, 89–107.Google Scholar
  69. Jin, S., Seo, M.-G., & Shapiro, D. L. (2016). Do happy leaders lead better? Affective and attitudinal antecedents of transformational leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 27, 64–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Judge, T. A., & Bono, J. E. (2000). Five-factor model of personality and transformational leadership. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85, 751–765.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Katz, D., Maccoby, N., & Morse, N. (1950). Productivity, supervision, and morale in an office situation. Ann Arbor: Institute for Social Research.Google Scholar
  72. Kirkman, B. L., & Rosen, B. (1999). Beyond self-management: Antecedents and consequences of team empowerment. The Academy of Management Journal, 42, 58–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Koberg, C. S., Boss, W., Senjem, J. C., & Goodman, E. A. (1999). Antecedents and outcomes of empowerment: Empirical evidence from the health care industry. Group and Organization Management, 34, 71–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Liu, W., Lepak, D. P., Takeuchi, R., & Sims, H. P. (2003). Matching leadership styles with employment modes: Strategic human resource management perspective. Human Resource Management Review, 13, 127–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (1990). A theory of goal setting and task performance. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  76. Lorinkova, N. M., Pearsall, M. J., & Sims, H. P. (2013). Examining the differential longitudinal performance of directive versus empowering leadership in teams. Academy of Management Journal, 56, 573–596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Lowney, C. (2003). Heroic leadership: Best practices from a 450-year-old company that changed the world. Chicago: Loyola Press.Google Scholar
  78. Lucke, G. A., & Furtner, M. R. (2015). Soldiers lead themselves to more success: A self-leadership intervention study. Military Psychology, 27, 311–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Manz, C. C. (1986). Self-leadership: Toward an expanded theory of self-influence processes in organizations. Academy of Management Review, 11, 585–600.Google Scholar
  80. Manz, C. C., & Sims, H. P. (1980). Self-management as a substitute for leadership: A social learning theory perspective. Academy of Management Review, 5, 361–367.Google Scholar
  81. Manz, C. C., & Sims, H. P. (1987). Leading workers to lead themselves: The external leadership of self-managing work teams. Administrative Science Quarterly, 32, 106–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Manz, C. C., & Sims, H. P. (1991). Superleadership: Beyond the myth of heroic leadership. Organizational Dynamics, 19, 18–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Manz, C. C., & Sims, H. P. (2007). Super leadership: Beyond the myth of heroic leadership. In R. P. Vecchio (Hrsg.), Leadership: Understanding the dynamics of power and influence in organizations (S. 377–393). Note Dame: University of Notre Dame Press.Google Scholar
  84. Manz, C. C., Skaggs, B. C., Pearce, C. L., & Wassenaar, C. L. (2015). Serving one another: Are shared and self-leadership the keys to service sustainability? Journal of Organizational Behavior, 36, 607–612.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Martin, S. L., Liao, H., & Campbell, E. M. (2013). Directive versus empowering leadership: A field experiment comparing impacts on task proficiency and proactivity. Academy of Management Journal, 56, 1372–1395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. McClelland, D. C. (1961). The achieving society. Princeton: Van Nostrand.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. McClelland, D. C. (1975). Power: The inner experience. New York: Irvington.Google Scholar
  88. McClelland, D. C. (1985). Human motivation. Glenview: Scott, Foresman.Google Scholar
  89. McGregor, D. (1960). The human side of enterprise. New York, 21, 166.Google Scholar
  90. Müller, G. F., Sauerland, M., & Butzmann, B. (2011). Führung durch Selbstführung – Konzept, Messung und Korrelate. Gruppendynamik und Organisationsberatung, 42, 377–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Mumford, M. D., Marks, M. A., Connelly, M. S., Zaccaro, S. J., & Reiter-Palmon, R. (2000). Development of leadership skills: Experience and timing. The Leadership Quarterly, 11, 87–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Neck, C. P., & Houghton, J. D. (2006). Two decades of self-leadership theory and research: Past developments, present trends, and future possibilities. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 21, 270–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Pearce, C. L. (1997). The determinants of change management team effectiveness: A longitudinal investigation. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park.Google Scholar
  94. Pearce, C. L. (2007). The future of leadership development: The importance of identity, multi-level approaches, self-leadership, physical fitness, shared leadership, networking, creativity, emotions, spirituality and on-boarding processes. Human Resource Management Review, 17, 355–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Pearce, C. L., & Conger, J. A. (Hrsg.). (2003). Shared leadership: Reframing the hows and whys of leadership. Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  96. Pearce, C. L., & Manz, C. C. (2005). The new silver bullets of leadership: The importance of self- and shared leadership in knowledge work. Organizational Dynamics, 34, 130–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Pearce, C. L., & Manz, C. C. (2014). The leadership disease…and its potential cure. Business Horizons, 57, 215–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Pearce, C. L., & Sims, H. P. (2000). Shared leadership: Toward a multi-level theory of leadership. Advances in interdisciplinary studies of work teams (Bd. 7, S. 115–139). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.Google Scholar
  99. Pearce, C. L., & Sims, H. P. (2002). Vertical versus shared leadership as predictors of the effectiveness of change management teams: An examination of aversive, directive, transactional, transformational, and empowering leader behaviors. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 6, 172–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Pearce, C. L., Sims, H. P., Cox, J. F., Ball, G., Schnell, E., Smith, K. A., & Trevino, L. (2003). Transactors, transformers and beyond: A multi-method development of a theoretical typology of Leadership. Journal of Management Development, 22, 273–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Pearce, C. L., Yoo, Y., & Alavi, M. (2004). Leadership, social work and virtual teams: The relative influence of vertical vs. shared leadership in the nonprofit sector. In R. Riggio & S. Smith-Orr (Hrsg.), Nonprofit leadership (S. 180–203). San Francisco: Jossey Bass.Google Scholar
  102. Pearce, C. L., Manz, C. C., & Sims, H. P. (2008). The roles of vertical and shared leadership in the enactment of executive corruption: Implications for research and practice. The Leadership Quarterly, 19, 353–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Pearce, C. L., Manz, C. C., & Akanno, S. (2013). Searching for the holy grail of management development and sustainability: Is shared leadership development the answer? Journal of Management Development, 32, 247–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Podsakoff, P. M., Bommer, W. H., Podsakoff, N. P., & MacKenzie, S. B. (2006). Relationships between leader reward and punishment behavior and subordinate attitudes, perceptions, and behaviors: A meta-analytic review of existing and new research. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 99, 113–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Reichard, R. J., & Johnson, S. K. (2011). Leader self-development as organizational strategy. The Leadership Quarterly, 22, 33–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Reicher, S., Haslam, S. A., & Hopkins, N. (2005). Social identity and the dynamics of leadership: Leaders and followers as collaborative agents in the transformation of social reality. The Leadership Quarterly, 16, 547–568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Robbins, S. P., & Judge, T. A. (2009). Organizational behavior. Upper Saddle River: Pearson.Google Scholar
  108. Ross, S. (2013). A conceptual model for understanding the process of self-leadership development and action-steps to promote personal leadership development. Journal of Management Development, 33, 299–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Scott, W. E., & Podsakoff, P. M. (1982). Leadership, supervision and behavioral control: Perspectives from an experimental analysis. In L. Frederickson (Hrsg.), Handbook of organizational behavior management. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  110. Shamir, B., House, R. J., & Arthur, M. B. (1993). The motivational effects of charismatic leadership: A self-concept based theory. Organization Science, 4, 577–594.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Sims, H. P., Faraj, S., & Yun, S. (2009). When should a leader be directive or empowering? How to develop your own situational theory of leadership. Business Horizons, 52, 149–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Spreitzer, G. M. (1995). Individual empowerment in the workplace: Dimensions, measurement, validation. The Academy of Management Journal, 38, 1442–1465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Srivastava, A., Bartol, K. M., & Locke, E. A. (2006). Empowering leadership in management teams: Effects on knowledge sharing, efficacy, and performance. The Academy of Management Journal, 49, 1239–1251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Stewart, G. L., Courtright, S. H., & Manz, C. C. (2011). Self-leadership: A multilevel review. Journal of Management, 37, 185–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Tekleab, A. G., Sims, H. P., Yun, S., Tesluk, P. E., & Cox, J. (2008). Are we on the same page? Effects of self-awareness of empowering and transformational leadership. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 14, 185–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Thoresen, C. E., & Mahoney, M. J. (1974). Behavioral self-control. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.Google Scholar
  117. Thorndike, E. L. (1911). Animal intelligence: Experimental studies. New York: Hafner.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Tuckey, M. R., Bakker, A. B., & Dollard, M. F. (2012). Empowering leaders optimize work conditions for engagement: A multilevel study. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 17, 15–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Unterrainer, C., Palgi, M., Weber, W. G., Iwanowa, A., & Oesterreich, R. (2011). Structurally anchored organizational democracy: Does it reach the employee? Journal of Personnel Psychology, 10, 118–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Vecchio, R. P., Justin, J. E., & Pearce, C. L. (2010). Empowering leadership: An examination of mediating mechanisms within a hierarchical structure. The Leadership Quarterly, 21, 530–542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Vroom, V. H. (1964). Work and motivation. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  122. Wang, D., Waldman, D. A., & Zhang, Z. (2014). A meta-analysis of shared leadership and team effectiveness. Journal of Applied Psychology, 99, 181–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Weber, M. (1947). The theory of social and economic organizations. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  124. Weber, W. G., Unterrainer, C., & Schmid, B. E. (2009). The influence of organizational democracy on employees’ socio-moral climate and prosocial behavior orientations. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 30, 1127–1149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Wegge, J., Jeppesen, H., Weber, W. G., Pearce, C. L., Silva, S. A., Pundt, A., Jonsson, T., Wolf, S., Wassenaar, C. L., Unterrainer, C., & Piecha, A. (2010). Promoting work motivation in organizations: Should employee involvement in organizational leadership become a new tool in the organizational psychologist’s kit? Journal of Personnel Psychology, 9, 154–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Wong, S. I., & Giessner, S. R. (im Druck). The thin line between empowering and laissez-faire leadership: An expectancy-match perspective. Journal of Management. doi:10.1177/0149206315574597.Google Scholar
  127. Wood, S. J., Stride, C. B., Wall, T. D., & Clegg, C. W. (2004). Revisiting the use and effectiveness of modern management practices. Human Factors and Ergonomics in Manufacturing, 14, 415–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Xue, Y., Bradley, J., & Liang, H. (2011). Team climate, empowering leadership, and knowledge sharing. Journal of Knowledge Management, 15, 299–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Yun, S., Cox, J., & Sims, H. P. (2006). The forgotten follower: A contingency model of leadership and follower self-leadership. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 21, 374–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Zhang, X., & Bartol, K. M. (2010). Linking empowering leadership and employee creativity: The influence of psychological empowerment, intrinsic motivation, and creative process engagement. The Academy of Management Journal, 53, 107–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Zhang, S., Ke, X., & Wang, X. (2015). Empowering leadership and creativity: The influence of access to resources/information, and OBSE. Academy of Management Proceedings (Meeting Abstract Supplement) January, 16035.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institut für PsychologieUniversität InnsbruckInnsbruckÖsterreich
  2. 2.Institut für EntrepreneurshipUniversität LiechtensteinVaduzLiechtenstein

Personalised recommendations