Measuring Health in a Longitudinal Education Study

  • Johann Carstensen
  • Anja Gottburgsen
  • Monika Jungbauer-Gans
Chapter

Abstract

When analyzing health in an educational study, there are some methodological aspects and problems that must be considered. In this paper, we address questions of data quality in the measurement of health outcomes. It is possible that data quality can be biased by social desirability since questions on health (e. g., on eating disorders or body height and weight) are fairly sensitive items, and accordingly, the impact of the privacy of the setting increases with the sensitivity of the questions. Therefore, we expect mode effects resulting from the way the data are collected. Following a methodological discussion of these issues, empirical analyses are presented. We compare the measuring of body height, weight, BMI, and the likelihood of having an eating disorder in the NEPS with data from reference studies (KiGGS and GEDA from 2010) carried out by the Robert Koch Institute. To conduct the analysis of BMI, we use the Kindergarten cohort, the ninth graders, and the adults’ cohort. The eating disorder scale is compared for ninth graders only. The results show some differences between NEPS data and the reference data, which point towards an influence of the interview situation. In about half of our comparisons, no significant deviations between the datasets can be found. A short section describes some further thoughts on endogeneity problems.

Keywords

Obesity Depression Europe Income Expense 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Angrist, J. D., & Krueger, A. B. (2001). Instrumental variables and the search for identification: From supply and demand to natural experiments. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 15(4), 69 – 85.Google Scholar
  2. Basch, C. E. (2011). Healthier students are better learners: A missing link in school reforms to close the achievement gap. Journal of School Health, 81(10), 593–598.Google Scholar
  3. Béland, Y., & St-Pierre, M. (2008). Mode effects in the Canadian Community Health Survey: A comparison of CATI and CAPI. In J. M. Lepkowski (Ed.), Advances in telephone survey methodology (pp. 297 – 311). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  4. Blossfeld, H.-P., Roßbach, H.-G., & von Maurice, J. (Eds.) (2011). Education as a lifelong process: The German National Educational Panel Study (NEPS) [Special Issue]. Zeitschrift für Erziehungswissenschaft, 14. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.Google Scholar
  5. Cole, T. J., Bellizzi, M. C., Flegal, K. M., & Dietz, W. H. (2000). Establishing a standard definition for child over-weight and obesity worldwide: International survey. British Medical Journal, 320(7244), 1 – 6.Google Scholar
  6. Cutler, D. M., & Lleras-Muney, A. (2012). Education, and health: Insights from international comparisons. (NBER Working Paper No. 17738). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.Google Scholar
  7. Dadaczynski, K. (2012). Stand der Forschung zum Zusammenhang von Gesundheit und Bildung. Zeitschrift für Gesundheitspsychologie, 20, 141–153.Google Scholar
  8. Dragano, N., & Siegrist, J. (2009). Die Lebenslaufperspektive gesundheitlicher Ungleichheit. In M. Richter, & K. Hurrelmann (Eds.), Gesundheitliche Ungleichheit: Grundlagen, Probleme, Perspektiven (pp. 181 – 194). Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.Google Scholar
  9. Engle, R. F., Henry, D. F., & Richard, J.-F. (1983). Exogeneity. Econometrica, 51(2), 277–304.Google Scholar
  10. Glaesmer, H., & Brähler, E. (2002). Schätzung der Prävalenz von Übergewicht und Adipositas auf der Grundlage subjektiver Daten zum Body-Mass-Index (BMI). Das Gesundheitswesen, 64(3), 133 – 138.Google Scholar
  11. Gross, C., Jobst, A., Jungbauer-Gans, M., & Schwarze, J. (2011). Educational returns over the life course. In H.-P. Blossfeld, H.-G. Roßbach, & J. von Maurice (Eds.), Zeitschrift für Erziehungswissenschaft, 14. Education as a lifelong process: The German National Educational Panel Study (NEPS) (pp. 139 – 154). Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.Google Scholar
  12. Groves, R. M., Fowler F. J., Couper, M. P., Lepkowski, J. M., Singer, E., & Tourangeau, R. (2004). Survey methodology. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  13. Kimbro, R. T., Bzostek, S., Goldman, N., & Rodríguez, G. (2008). Race, ethnicity, and the education gradient in health. Health Affairs, 27, 361–372.Google Scholar
  14. Kroh, M. (2004). Intervieweffekte bei der Erhebung des Körpergewichts: Die Qualität von umfragebasierten Gewichtsangaben (DIW-Diskussionspapier No. 439). Berlin: German Institute for Economic Research (DIW Berlin).Google Scholar
  15. Kromeyer-Hauschild, K., Wabitsch, M., Geller, F., Ziegler, A., Geiß, H. C., Hesse, V., & Hebebrand, J. (2001). Perzentile für den Body Mass Index für das Kindes- und Jugendalter unter Heranziehung verschiedener deutscher Stichproben. Monatschrift Kinderheilkunde, 149(8), 807 – 818.Google Scholar
  16. Kurth, B. M. (2007). Der Kinder- und Jugendgesundheitssurvey (KiGGS): Ein Überblick über Planung, Durchführung und Ergebnisse unter Berücksichtigung von Aspekten eines Qualitätsmanagements. Bundesgesundheitsblatt—Gesundheitsforschung—Gesundheitsschutz, 50, 533 – 546.Google Scholar
  17. Kurth, B. M., & Schaffrath-Rosario, A. (2007). Die Verbreitung von Übergewicht und Adipositas bei Kindern und Jugendlichen in Deutschland. Bundesgesundheitsblatt—Gesundheitsforschung—Gesundheitsschutz, 50, 736 – 743.Google Scholar
  18. Legewie, J. (2012). Die Schätzung von kausalen Effekten: Überlegungen zu Methoden der Kausalanalyse anhand von Kontexteffekten in der Schule. Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie, 64(1), 123 – 153.Google Scholar
  19. Mackenbach, J. P. (2006). Health inequalities: Europe in profile. An independent expert report commissioned by the UK presidency of the EU. London: Department of Health.Google Scholar
  20. Mielck, A. (2008). Soziale Ungleichheit und Gesundheit in Deutschland. Die internationale Perspektive. Bundesgesundheitsblatt—Gesundheitsforschung—Gesundheitsschutz, 51, 345 – 352.Google Scholar
  21. Morgan, J. F., Reid, F., & Lacey, J. H. (1999). The SCOFF questionnaire: Assessment of a new screening tool for eating disorders. British Medical Journal, 319(7223), 1467–1468.Google Scholar
  22. Siegrist, J., & Marmot, M. (2006). Social inequalities in health: Basic facts. In J. Siegrist, & M. Marmot (Eds.), Social inequalities in health. New evidence and policy implications (pp. 1–25). Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. OECD. (2006). What does education do to our health ? In OECD (Ed.), Measuring the effects of education on health and civic engagement (pp. 355 – 363). Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
  24. Perry, L., Morgan, J., Reid, F., Brunton, J., O’Brien, A., Luck, A., & Lacey, H. (2002). Screening for symptoms of eating disorders: Reliability of the SCOFF screening tool with written compared to oral delivery. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 32(4), 466 – 472.Google Scholar
  25. Power, C., & Kuh, D. (2006). Life course development of unequal health. In J. Siegrist, & M. Marmot (Eds.), Social inequalities in health. New evidence and policy implications (pp. 27–54). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Proppe, D. (2009). Endogenität und Instrumentenschätzer. In S. Albers, D. Klapper, U. Konradt, A. Walter, & J. Wolf (Eds.), Methodik der empirischen Forschung (3rd ed., pp. 253–266). München: Gabler.Google Scholar
  27. Public Use File GEDA 2010, Robert Koch Institute, Berlin (Germany) 2012.Google Scholar
  28. Public Use File KiGGS, The German Health Survey for Children and Adolescents 2003–2006, Robert Koch Institute, Berlin (Germany), 2008.Google Scholar
  29. Ross, C. E., & Wu, C. (1995). The links between education and health. American Sociological Review, 60(5), 719 – 745.Google Scholar
  30. Shields, M., Grober, S. C., & Tremblay, M. S. (2008). Effects of measurement on obesity and morbidity. Health Reports, 19(2), 77–84.Google Scholar
  31. Suhrcke, M., & de Paz Nieves, C. (2011). The impact of health and health behaviours on educational outcomes in high-income countries: A review of the evidence. Copenhagen: WHO.Google Scholar
  32. Tourangeau, R., Rips, L. J., & Rasinski, K. (2000). The psychology of survey response. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Tourangeau, R., & Smith, T. W. (1996). Asking sensitive questions: The impact of data collection mode, question format, and question context. The Public Opinion Quarterly, 60(2), 275 – 304.Google Scholar
  34. Visscher, T. L. S., Viet, A. L., Kroesbergen, I. H., & Seidell, J. C. (2006). Underreporting of BMI in adults and its effect on obesity prevalence estimations in the period 1998 to 2001. Obesity, 14(11), 2054–2063.Google Scholar
  35. von Auer, L. (2011). Ökonometrie. Eine Einführung (5th ed.). Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  36. WHO. (2000). Obesity: Preventing and managing the global epidemic. Report of a WHO consultation (Technical Report Series No 894). Geneva: WHO.Google Scholar
  37. Wooldridge, J. M. (2002). Econometric analysis of cross section and panel data. Cambridge: B & T.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Johann Carstensen
    • 1
  • Anja Gottburgsen
    • 1
  • Monika Jungbauer-Gans
    • 1
  1. 1.HannoverDeutschland

Personalised recommendations