The introduction posed the question of whether one can state the successful achievement of a common European energy policy, based on the lessons of the Implementation of Directive 2009/28/EC. Did the European Union? Whilst analysing the progress of the promotion of renewable energies in the context of the 2020 policy framework, the European Commission released a 2013 Green Paper to reflect upon a new framework for climate and energy policies up to 2030 (EC, 2013a: 3; EC 2013c: 3). The paper raises 22 overall questions to evaluate the existing 20-20-20 policy framework, in order to draw lessons for the future design of the Union’s energy and climate change policy (EC, 2013a: 13).
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