Fundamentals of Topological Insulators
In recent years, a new field in condensed matter physics has emerged, describing a novel class of bulk insulators with conducting states on their boundaries [5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11]. The driving force within these materials, which are referred to as topological insulators (TIs), is a strong spin-orbit (SO) interaction under the conservation of time-reversal symmetry (TRS). In this chapter, I will give an insight into the fundamental properties of twodimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) TIs and stress how this new class can be classified in terms of topology. This new approach of topological invariants has become a powerful tool for understanding many body phases which have bulk energy gaps, and has resulted in the discovery of interesting new phases.
KeywordsEdge State Topological Insulator Dirac Point Hall Conductance Chern Number
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