Fundamentals of Topological Insulators
In recent years, a new field in condensed matter physics has emerged, describing a novel class of bulk insulators with conducting states on their boundaries [5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11]. The driving force within these materials, which are referred to as topological insulators (TIs), is a strong spin-orbit (SO) interaction under the conservation of time-reversal symmetry (TRS). In this chapter, I will give an insight into the fundamental properties of twodimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) TIs and stress how this new class can be classified in terms of topology. This new approach of topological invariants has become a powerful tool for understanding many body phases which have bulk energy gaps, and has resulted in the discovery of interesting new phases.
KeywordsManifold Antimony Topo Exter HgTe
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