One of the most important turning points in Turkish history was the military coup that took place on 12 September 1980. The coup, which in short is called 12 September, brought about radical structural changes in economics, politics, and culture. Any work concerning the material and cultural life in Turkey shows a strict division between before and after 1980. This is because the military’s intervention in the civil democratic system in 1980 not only aimed at a shift in the political system by oppressing leftist politics, and particularly the revolutionary movement, but rather the junta and the governments following it aimed to restructure economic, social and cultural life. In Althusser’s terms, both the repressive (armed forces) and the ideological state apparatuses (a new constitution in 1982, a higher education institute, and censorship of broadcasting and publishing) were used in conjunction to apply radical changes.
KeywordsMigration Economic Crisis Europe Income Radar
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.