Distinguishing Implicit from Explicit Brand Attitudes in Brand Placement Research

  • Annemarie M. Wennekers
  • Lisa Vandeberg
  • Kim Zoon
  • Eva A. van Reijmersdal
Chapter
Part of the European Advertising Academy book series (EAA)

Abstract

Brand placement is a popular topic, both in business and academia. Brands are placed in a wide-ranging array of media, including television programs, movies, radio shows, magazines, games, music videos, and websites. Expenditures on brand placement are still growing (PQ Media, 2013), as well as the number of scientific studies on the effects of brand placements (for reviews see Balusubramanian, Karrh, & Patwardhan, 2006; Van Reijmersdal, Neijens, & Smit, 2009). These studies have contributed to the knowledge about explicit (deliberative, conscious, or intentional) brand placement effects, but little is known about whether and how brand placements affect consumers’ implicit (associative, unconscious, or automatic) responses toward the placed brand.

Keywords

Marketing Posit Smit Cola 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Auty, S. and C. Lewis (2004), “Exploring Children's Choice: The Reminder Effect of Product Placement,” in: Psychology & Marketing, Vol. 21, 697–713.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Balasubramanian, S. K.; Karrh, J. A. and H. Patwardhan (2006), “Audience Response to Product Placement: An Integrative Framework and Future Research Agenda,” in: Journal of Advertising, Vol. 35, 115–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. DeGregorio, F. and T. Sung (2010), “Understanding Attitudes Toward and Behaviors in Response to Product Placement,” in: Journal of Advertising, Vol. 39, 83–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. De Houwer, J. (2007), “A Conceptual and Theoretical Analysis of Evaluative Conditioning,” in: The Spanish Journal of Psychology, Vol. 10 (2), 230–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. De Houwer, J.; Thomas, S. and F. Baeyens (2001), “Association Learning of Likes and Dislikes: A Review of 25 Years of Research on Human Evaluative Conditioning,” in: Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 127, 853–869.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dijksterhuis, A.; Smith, P. K.; van Baaren, R. B. and Wigboldus, D. H. J. (2005), “The Unconscious Consumer: Effects of Environment on Consumer Behavior,” in: Journal of Consumer Psychology, Vol. 15 (3), 193–202.Google Scholar
  7. Dimofte, C. V. (2010), “Implicit Measures of Consumer Cognition: A Review,” in: Psychology & Marketing, Vol. 27, 921–937.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dovidio, J. F.; Kawakami, K. and S. L. Gaertner (2002), “Implicit and Explicit Prejudice and Interracial Interaction,” in: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 82, 62–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Fazio, R. H.; Sanbonmatsu, D. M.; Powell, M. C. and F. R. Kardes (1986), “On the Automatic Activation of Attitudes,” in: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 50, 229–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Friese, M.; Hofmann, W. and M. Wänke (2008), “When Impulses Take Over: Moderated Predictive Validity of Explicit and Implicit Attitude Measures in Predicting Food Choice and Consumption Behavior,” in: Journal of Social Psychology, Vol. 47, 397–419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Galdi, S.; Arcuri, L. and B. Gawronski (2008), “Automatic Mental Associations Predict Future Choices of Undecided Decision-Makers,” in: Science, Vol. 321 (5892), 1100–1102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gawronski, B. and G. V. Bodenhausen (2006), “Associative and Propositional Processes in Evaluation: An Integrative Review of Implicit and Explicit Attitude Change,” in: Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 132, 692–731.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gibson, B. (2008), “Can Evaluative Conditioning Change Attitudes Toward Mature Brands? New Evidence from the Implicit Association Test,” in: Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 35, 178–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gibson, B.; Redker, C. and I. Zimmerman (2014), “Conscious and Nonconscious Effects of Product Placement: Brand Recall and Active Persuasion Knowledge Affect Brand Attitudes and Brand Self-Identification Differently,” in: Psychology of Popular Media Culture, Vol. 3, 19–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Greenwald, A. G.; McGhee, D. E. and J. K. L. Schwartz (1998), “Measuring Individual Differences in Implicit Cognition: The Implicit Association Test,” in: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 74, 1464–1480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gupta, P. B. and K. L. Lord (1998), “Product Placement in Movies: The Effect of Prominence and Mode on Audience Recall,” in: Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising, Vol. 20, 47–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hang, H. (2012), “The Implicit Influence of Bimodal Brand Placement on Children,” in: International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 31, 465–484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jones, C. R.; Olson, M. A. and R. H. Fazio (2010), “Evaluative Conditioning: The “How” Question,” in: Zanna, M. P.; Olson, J. M. (2010) (eds.): Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, Academic Press, San Diego, Vol. 43, 205–255.Google Scholar
  19. Krugman, H. E. (1977), “Memory Without Recall, Exposure Without Perception,” in: Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 17 (4), 7–12.Google Scholar
  20. Law, S. and K. A. Braun (2004), “Product Placements: How to Measure their Impact?,” in: Shrum, L. J. (2004) (ed.): The Psychology of Entertainment Media: Blurring the Lines Between Entertainment and Persuasion, Lawrence Erlbaum, Mahwah, New Jersey, 63–78.Google Scholar
  21. Madhavaram, S. and R. Appan (2010), “The Potential Implications of Web-Based Marketing Communications for Consumers' Implicit and Explicit Brand Attitudes: A Call for Research,” in: Psychology & Marketing, Vol. 27, 186–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Miles Homer, P. (2009), “Product Placements: The Impact of Placement Type and Repetition on Attitude,” in: Journal of Advertising, Vol. 38, 21–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Morton, C. R. and M. Friedman (2002), “I Saw it in the Movies”: Exploring the Link Between Product Placement Beliefs and Reported Usage Behavior,” in: Journal of Current Issues & Research in Advertising, Vol. 24, 33–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Nosek, B. A.; Hawkins, C. B. and R. S. Frazier (2011), “Implicit Social Cognition: From Measures to Mechanisms,” in: Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Vol. 15, 152–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Perkins, A.; Forehand, M.; Greenwald, A. G. and D. Maison (2008), “The Influence of Implicit Social Cognition on Consumer Behavior: Measuring the Non-Conscious,” in: Haugtvedt, C.; Herr, P.; Kardes, F. (2008) (eds.): Handbook of Consumer Psychology, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, NJ, 461–475.Google Scholar
  26. PQ Media (2013), “Global Product Placement Spending Forecast 2012-2016,” in: PQ Media, Stamford, CT.Google Scholar
  27. Redker, C.; Gibson, B. and I. Zimmerman (2013), “Liking of Movie Genre Alters the Effectiveness of Background Product Placements,” in: Basic and Applied Social Psychology, Vol. 35, 249–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Redondo, I. (2012). The Behavioral Effects of Negative Product Placements in Movies,” in: Psychology & Marketing, Vol. 29, 622–635.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Russell, C. A. (2002). Investigating the Effectiveness of Product Placements in Television Shows: The Role of Modality and Plot Connection Congruence on Brand Memory and Attitude,” in: Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 29, 306–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Scott, J. and M. Craig-Lees (2010), “Audience Engagement and its Effects on Product Placement Recognition,” in: Journal of Promotion Management, Vol. 16, 39–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Shapiro, S. and H. S. Krishnan (2001), “Memory-Based Measures for Assessing Advertising Effects: A Comparison of Explicit and Implicit Memory Effects,” in: Journal of Advertising, Vol. 30 (3), 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Strack, F. and R. Deutsch (2004), “Reflective and Impulsive Determinants of Social Behavior,” in: Personality and Social Psychology Review, Vol. 8, 220–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ten Buuren, G. (2013), “Merken, Mood en Mad Men: De Invloed van Sfeer op het Merkimago bij Brand Placement in Televisieprogramma’s,” Unpublished Master thesis, Graduate School of Communication, University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands.Google Scholar
  34. Van Reijmersdal, E. A. (2009), “Brand Placement Prominence: Good for Memory! Bad for Attitudes?,” in: Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 49, 151–153.Google Scholar
  35. Van Reijmersdal, E. A. (2011), “Mixing Advertising and Editorial Content in Radio Programmes: Appreciation and Recall of Brand Placements Versus Commercials,” in: International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 30, 425–446.Google Scholar
  36. Van Reijmersdal, E. A.; Jansz, J.; Peters, O. and G. van Noort (2010), “The effects of Interactive Brand Placements in Online Games on Children’s Cognitive, Affective and Conative Brand Responses,” in: Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 26, 1787–1794.Google Scholar
  37. Van Reijmersdal, E. A.; Neijens, P. C. and E. G. Smit (2009), “A New Branch of Advertising: Reviewing Factors that Influence Reactions to Product Placement,” in: Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 49, 429–449.Google Scholar
  38. Van Reijmersdal, E. A.; Rozendaal, E. and Buijzen, M. (2012), “Brand Prominence in Advergames: Effects on Children’s Explicit and Implicit Memory,” in: Eisend, M.; Langner, T.; Okazaki, S. (2012) (eds.): Advances in Advertising Research (Vol. III): Current Insights and Future Trends, Springer Gabler, Wiesbaden, 321–330.Google Scholar
  39. Waiguny, M. K. J.; Nelson, M. R. and B. Marko (2013), “How Advergame Content Influences Explicit and Implicit Brand Attitudes: When Violence Spills Over,” in: Journal of Advertising, Vol. 42 (2–3), 155–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Wennekers, A. M.; Vandeberg, L.; Zoon, K. and E. A. Van Reijmersdal (in progress), “How Subtle Brand Placements Affect Implicit Brand Attitudes”.Google Scholar
  41. Yang, M. and D. R. Roskos-Ewoldsen (2007), “The Effectiveness of Brand Placements in the Movies: Levels of Placements, Explicit and Implicit Memory, and Brand Choice Behavior,” in: Journal of Communication, Vol. 57, 469–489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Zajonc, R. B. (1980), “Feeling and Thinking: Preferences Need No Inferences,” in: American Psychologist, Vol. 35, 151–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Zajonc, R. B. (2001), “Mere Exposure: A Gateway to the Subliminal,” in: Current Directions in Psychological Science, Vol. 10, 224–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Annemarie M. Wennekers
    • 1
  • Lisa Vandeberg
    • 1
  • Kim Zoon
    • 1
  • Eva A. van Reijmersdal
    • 1
  1. 1.University of AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations