The ACACIA Paradox: Built Heritage Conservation versus Increasing Tourism

Part of the Management – Culture – Interpretation book series (MCI)


A superficial view over the tourism industry, which is not neglectful by any means, but something the average tourist usually does, can only reveal the obvious consumption relation created between the particular resources and their specialist consumer. Not taken very often into account, the tourist–destination interaction is an essential variable that can “make or break” the experience because of the diverging interests of the two. While the tourist mandates the interaction to be authentic, intense and gratifying, the “destination” usually trusts fewer traces of the passage, some that would not alter its integrity. Where the two meet is the universally commended ideal, but the interaction rarely happens without leaving traces on either side.


Cultural Heritage World Heritage Heritage Site World Heritage Site Historic Centre 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Andrei, C. (2002): Parlamentul Europei cere oprirea lucrărilor la “Dracula Park” până la prezentarea raportului UNESCO. România Liberă, 29 April.Google Scholar
  2. Archer, B., Cooper, C. and Ruhanen L. (2005): The Positive and Negative Impacts of Tourism. In: Theobald, W.F. (ed.): Global Tourism (3rd Ed.), Burlington, MA: Elsevier, 79–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Avram, L. and Grosu, C. (2003): Dracula Park a supt miliarde de la bugetul de stat. Adevărul, 2 July.Google Scholar
  4. Beauregard, R.A. (1998): Tourism and Economic Development Policy in US Urban Areas. In: Ioannides, D. and Debbage, K.G. (eds): The Economic Geography of the Tourist Industry: A Supply-side Analysis. London: Routledge, 219–234.Google Scholar
  5. Becket, E., and Olson, P. (2008): In Pictures: Europe’s Most Idyllic Places to Live,, 15.01.2014.
  6. Boustan, R.S., Kosansky, O., and Rustow, M. (2011): Jewish Studies at the Crossroads of Anthropology and History. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brockman, N.C. (2011): Encyclopedia of Sacred Places. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, LLC.Google Scholar
  8. Brunet, S., Bauer, J., De Lacy, T. and Tshering, K. (2001): Tourism Development in Bhutan: Tensions between Tradition and Modernity. In: Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 9(3), 243–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Burns, P.M., Palmer, C., and Lester, JA. (2010): Tourism and Visual Culture, Volume 1: Theories and Concepts. Oxfordshire: CAB InternationalCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Burtan, A. (2001): Casa Groazei şi ţeapa-jet în Dracula Park. Evenimentul Zilei, 6 November, 12.Google Scholar
  11. Carria, F. (2004): La conservazione delle facciate materiali e tehniche per il recupero. Milano: Tecniche nuove.Google Scholar
  12. Cohen, E. (1979): Rethinking the Sociology of Tourism. In: Annals of Tourism Research, 6(1), 18–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Constantinescu, M. (2001): Dan Matei Agathon este gata să se întâlnească cu contestatarii “Dracula Park”. Cotidianul, 6 November.Google Scholar
  14. Cripps, K. (2013): China’s First Tourism Law Comes into Effect, Tourists Issued Manners Guide. CNN, 4 October,, 02.08.2013.
  15. D’Amore, L. (1983): Guidelines to planning harmony with the host community. In: Murphy, P.E. (ed.) Tourism in Canada: Selected Issues and Options. Victoria: Department of Geography. Victoria: University of Victoria.Google Scholar
  16. Davis, D.J.A., and Cosenza, R.M. (1988): Segmenting Local Residents, Interests, and Opinions toward Tourism. Journal of Travel Research, 27(3), 2–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Doxey, G.V. (1975): A Causation Theory of Visitor-Resident Irritants: Methodology and Research Inferences. San Diego, California: Proceedings of the Travel Research Association 6th Annual Conference, 195–198.Google Scholar
  18. Evans, G. (2003): Hard-branding the Cultural City – From Prado to Prada. In: International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 27(2), 417–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Eyo, E. (1994): Repatriation of Cultural Heritage: The African Experience. In: Kaplan F.E.S. (eds.): Museums and the Making of “Ourselves”. London: Leicester University Press, 330–350.Google Scholar
  20. Feilden, B. and Jokilehto J. (2005): Management Guidelines for World Cultural Heritage Sites. ICCROM, Rome.Google Scholar
  21. Ficeac, B. (2001): Turism în ţara lui Dracula. România Liberă, 22 November.Google Scholar
  22. Frölich, H.B. (2001): Nu avem nevoie de un Draculaland. România Liberă, 5 NovemberGoogle Scholar
  23. Garrod, B. and Fyall, A. (2000): Managing Heritage Tourism. In: Annals of Tourism Research, 27(3), 682–708.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gillmore, L. (1999): Romania: Cold Comfort and the Last Judgement; Some of the Finest Frescoes in the World Are to Be Found in the Convents and Monasteries of Romania, but Don’t Expect a Warm Welcome. The Independent, November 13.Google Scholar
  25. Goldman, R. and Papson, S. (1996): Sign Wars: The Cluttered Landscape of Advertising. London: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  26. Hollinworth, N., Hwang, F., Allen, K., Minnion, A., and Kwiatkowska, G. (2012): Interactive Sensory Objects for Access to Heritage,, 08.02.2014.
  27. Hornstein, B. (2011): Losing Site: Architecture, Memory and Place. Farnham: Ashgate. Jokilehto, J. (1995): Comments on the Venice Charter with Illustrations,, 13.02.2014.
  28. Jokilehto, J. (1999): A History of Architectural Conservation. Oxford Butterworth Heinemann.Google Scholar
  29. Kavaratzis, M. (2004): From City Marketing to City Branding: Towards a Theoretical Framework for Developing City Brands. In: Place Branding, 1(1), 58–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kavaratzis, M. and Ashworth, G.J. (2005): City Branding: An Effective Assertion of Identity or a Transitory Marketing Trick? In: Tidschrift voor economische en sociale geographie, 96(5), 506–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Knowles, E.S. and Riner, D.D. (2007): Omega Approaches to Persuation: Overcoming Resistance. In: Pratkanis, A.R. (ed.): The Science of Social Influence: Advantages and Future Progress. New York: Psychology Press, 83–114.Google Scholar
  32. De Keersmaecker, R. (2006): Travellers’ Graffiti from Egypt and the Sudan, Volume 3. R. O. de Keersmaecker.Google Scholar
  33. De Launey, G. (2012): Are There too Many Tourists at Angkor’s Temples? BBC News Asia, 9 June,, 12.09.2014.
  34. Leigh, D. (2007): Dracula Tourism in Romania: Cultural Identity and the State. In: Annals of Tourism Research, 34(3), 746–765.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Leigh, D. (2007): The Dracula Dilemma: Tourism, Identity and the State in Romania. Surrey: Ashgate Publishing.Google Scholar
  36. Lew, A., Hall, C.M. and Timothy, D.J. (2008): World Geography of Travel and Tourism: A Regional Approach. Oxford: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  37. Long, P.T., Perdue, R. and Allen, L. (1990): Rural Resident Tourism Perceptions and Attitudes by Community Level of Tourism. In: Journal of Travel Research, 28, 3–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lucas, E.V. (1905): The Works of Charles and Mary Lamb, Volume VI: Letters, 1796–1820. London: Methuen & Co.Google Scholar
  39. Luton, T. (2007) Preserving Petra: The Crumbling City of Stone. Discovering Stone, Issue 11. Australian Stone Advisory Association, 38–44.Google Scholar
  40. MacDonald, J.K. (1996): House of Eternity: The Tomb of Nefertari. Los Angeles: The Getty Conservation Institute.Google Scholar
  41. Macleod, D. (2005): Alternative Tourism: A Comparative Analysis of Meaning and Impact. In: Theobald, W.F. (ed.): Global Tourism (3rd Ed.), 123-140. Burlington, MA: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  42. Metro-Roland, M.M. (2011): Tourists, Signs and the City: The Semiotics of Culture in an Urban Landscape. Surrey: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  43. Misiura, S. (2006): Heritage Marketing. Oxford: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  44. Năstase, G. (2001): Dracula – produs touristic. Cotidianul, 15 November.Google Scholar
  45. Neagu, B. (2003): Mitrea l-a restructurat pe Dracula. Ziarul Financiar, 30 July.Google Scholar
  46. Nistor, S. (2001): Romania's Urban Architectural Heritage between Neglect and Revitalization, in Proceedings of ARCCHIP Workshop A03,, 06.02.2014.
  47. Nistor, S. (2008): Sibiu Capitală Culturală 2007 ianuarie 2005 – decembrie 2007. Raport Sinteză. Ministerul Culturii şi Cultelor.Google Scholar
  48. Noble, R., Brown, M. and Cole, S. (2012) (eds.): Water Equity in Tourism: A Human Right – A Global Responsibility, Research Report. Tourism Concern Action for Ethical Tourism.Google Scholar
  49. Norberg-Schulz, C. (1980): Genius Loci: Towards a Phenomenology of Architecture. New York: Rizzoli.Google Scholar
  50. Nuryanti, W. (1996): Heritage and Postmodern Tourism. In: Annals of Tourism Research, 23(2), 249–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Parau, C.E. (2009): Impaling Dracula: How EU accession empowered civil society in Romania. West Europe Politics, 32(1), 119–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Patin, V. (1999): Safeguarding Heritage. Will market forces rule? In: UNESCO Currier 52 (July/August), 35–36.Google Scholar
  53. Pearce, D. (1981): Tourist Development: Topics in Applied Geography. London: Addison-Wesley Longman Inc.Google Scholar
  54. Prentice, R. (1993): Community-driven Tourism Planning and Residents’ Preferences. In: Tourism Management, 14(2), 218–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Prina, F. (2008): Architecture: Elements, Materials, Form. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  56. Reisner, R. (1971): Graffiti: Two Thousand Years of Wall Writing. New York: Cowles Book Co.Google Scholar
  57. Rodwell, D. (2007): Conservation and Sustainability in Historic Cities. Oxford: Blackwell.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Rojek, C. (1997): Indexing, Dragging and the Social Construction of Tourist Sights. In Rojek, C. and Urry, J. (eds.) Touring Cultures: Transformations of Travel and Theory. London: Routledge, 52–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Sandberg-Diment, E. (1998): Artistic Route through Romania. New York Times, June 21.Google Scholar
  60. Selwyn, T. (1996): “Introduction”. In: Selwyn, T. (ed.): The Tourist Image: Myths and Myth Making in Modern Tourism. Chichester: Wiley, 1–32.Google Scholar
  61. Severiades, S. (2001): A Quantitative Examination of Perceptions of the Impact of Tourism upon Family Life in Cyprus, PhD dissertation. Surrey: School of Management Studies for the Service Sector, University of Surrey.Google Scholar
  62. Shandley, R., Jamal, T. and Tănase, A. (2006): Location Shooting and the Filmatic Destination: Transylvanian Myths and the Postcolonial Tourism Enterprise. In: Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change, 4(3), 137–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Smith, M. and Hall, D. (2006): Enlargement Implications for European Tourism. In: Hall, D., Smith, M., and Marciszewska, B. (eds.) Tourism in the New Europe: The Challenges and Opportunities of EU Enlargement. Wallingford, OX: CAB International, 32–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Smith, V.L. (1989): Hosts and Guest: The Anthropology of Tourism (2nd ed.). Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Soutar, G.N. and McLeod, P.B. (1993): Residents’ Perceptions on Impact of the America’s Cup. In: Annals of Tourism Research, 30, 571–581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Spirou, C. (2011): Urban Tourism and Urban Change: Cities in a Global Economy. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  67. Theuma, N. (2006): Malta: Re-imagining the Mediterranean Destination. In: Hall, D, Smith, M. and Marciszewska, B. (eds.) Tourism in the New Europe: The Challenges and Opportunities of EU Enlargement. Wallingford OX: CAB International, 213–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Toader, A (2008) Sibiul aspire la un loc pe lista Patrimoniului Mondial UNESCO. BBC Romanian, 25 March,, 25.01.2014.
  69. Vela, A. (2001a): Lângă Sighişoara – Dracula Park. Adevărul, 6 November.Google Scholar
  70. Vela, A. (2001b): Dracula Park – la 6 km de Sighişoara pe Platoul Breite. Adevărul, 21 November.Google Scholar
  71. Walton, J. and Wood, J. (2008): The Future of Heritage – Changing Visions, Attitudes and Contexts in the 21st Century, in Virtual Symposium: Blackpool,, 02.02.2014.
  72. Walton, S., and Huey, J. (1992) Made in America: My Story. New York: Doubleday.Google Scholar
  73. Watt, D. (2008): Building Pathology: Principles and Practice. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.Google Scholar
  74. Williams, P.W. and Alison, G. (2005): Addressing Carrying Capacity Issues in Tourism Destinations through Growth Management. In: Theobald, W.F. (ed.): Global Tourism (3rd Ed.). Burlington, MA: Elsevier, 123–140.Google Scholar
  75. Wong, H. (2013): Netizen Outrage after Chinese Tourist Defaces Egyptian Temple. CNN, 29 May,, 02.08.2013.
  76. *** (1964) Venice Charter, 2nd International Congress of Architects and Specialists of Historic Buildings, Venice, 25-31 May,, 15.01.2014.
  77. *** (1971): Romania, Volume 22, Issue 23. U.S. Department of Commerce, U.S. International Trade Administration.Google Scholar
  78. *** (1978): UNESCO, Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage. Paris, 16 November 1972. UNESCO. General Conference, 17th Session. Records of the General Conference, Paris, 17 October to 21 November 1972. Volume I: Resolutions, Recommendations. UNESDOC database,, 30.01.2014.
  79. *** (1978): UNESCO, Intergovernmental Committee for the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, 2nd Session. Final Report. Washington, DC, 5–8 September 1978. CC-78/CONF.010/10 Rev. UNESDOC database,, 30.01.2014.
  80. *** (1999): Tourism and Culture: Rethinking the Mix. In UNESCO Currier 52 (July/August), 21–22Google Scholar
  81. *** (1999): Tourism and Culture: Rethinking the Mix. In UNESCO Currier 52 (July/August), 21–22.Google Scholar
  82. *** (2000): UNESCO, Report WHC-99/CONF.209/22, Paris,, 30.01.2014.
  83. *** (2001a): UNESCO, Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity, General Conference of UNESCO, 21st session, 2 November 2001,, 30.01.2014.
  84. *** (2001b): UNESCO, World Heritage Committee, 25th session, Helsinki, Finland, 11-16 December 2001,, 30.01.2014.
  85. *** (2003): UNESCO, Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage. Paris, 17 October 2003. General Conference, 32nd Session. Records of the General Conference, Thirty-second Session, Paris, 29 September to 17 October 2003. Volume I: Resolutions. UNESDOC database,, 30.01.2014.
  86. *** (2007): Organizing Committee for the “Medieval Sighişoara” Festival 2007: Regulament de organizare şi desfăşurare a Festivalului Sighişoara Medievală 2007,, 22.01.2014.
  87. *** (2013): UNESCO, Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage. World Heritage Committee, 37th Session, Phnom Penh, Cambodia, 16-27 June 2013,, 30.01.2014.
  88. *** (2013): UNESCO, State of Conservation Churches of Moldavia C 598 bis,, 07.02.2014.

Copyright information

© Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Urban Planning and Territorial Development„Ion Mincu“ University of Architecture and UrbanismBucharestRomania
  2. 2.Department of Technical Sciencies„Ion Mincu“ University of Architecture and UrbanismBucharestRomania

Personalised recommendations