This book is about multiparty elections in authoritarian regimes, their introduction, and their effect. A large number of countries, including Egypt, Kenya, Mexico, Pakistan, and Russia have held competitive elections despite being authoritarian in the past fifty years. In these systems, opposition parties are allowed to compete for office, yet elections cannot be considered free and fair. That means they are subject to manipulation by the incumbent government which aims at staying in power. Political regimes with these characteristics neither fit the classic distinction between democracy and authoritarianism, nor the commonly used categories to describe authoritarian subtypes such as military, one-party, or personal dictatorship. A new regime category, competitive authoritarianism, was used to label such cases (Diamond 2002; Levitsky and Way 2002). Yet, our knowledge about the conditions under which governments adopt this form and whether it influences political outcomes is still limited.
KeywordsRubber Arena Egypt Suffix Concession
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