Period 4 (2000-2011): The War of Position at its Peak

  • Annette RankoEmail author
Part of the Politik und Gesellschaft des Nahen Ostens book series (PGNO)


In the last phase of struggle between the Muslim Brotherhood and the state the war of position reached its apex, both on the material and on the ideational level. On the material level, the state was no longer able to uphold the repression and political exclusion that had marked period 3 (1995-2000). Internal and external pressure – especially from the United States – drove the state to a gradual political liberalization. The force that profited most from this opening was the Muslim Brotherhood. Its presence in civil society and state institutions now rose to unprecedented heights, making the group the country’s strongest organized opposition force.


Gaza Strip Political Reform Selective Moderation Parliamentary Election Muslim Brotherhood 
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Copyright information

© Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institut für Nahost-StudienGIGA Leibniz-Institut für Globale und Regionale StudienHamburgGermany

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