Electric Car Extensions of Car Brands: Impact on Brand Personality, Extension Evaluation and Parent Brand Feedback

Part of the European Advertising Academy book series (EAA, volume 5)


Different major car manufacturers, such as Nissan (Leaf) and Opel (Ampera) have developed fully electric car alternatives that are already for sale. When an established car brand launches an electric variant, it is extending its product line. A brand is a psychological carrier of meaning (e.g. Aaker, 2004; Esch, 2004; Keller, 2008). Car brands carry a symbolic meaning and brand personality is an important component of this meaning (Midgley, 1983).


Brand Equity Brand Image Brand Personality Parent Brand Brand Extension 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aaker, D. A. and K.L. Keller (1990), “Consumer evaluations of brand extensions,” in: Journal of Marketing, 54 (1), 27–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aaker, J.L. (1997), “Dimensions of brand personality,” in: Journal of Marketing Research, 34 (3), 347–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aaker, J.L. (1999), “The Malleable Self: The Role of Self Expression in Persuasion,” in: Journal of Marketing Research, 36 (1), 45–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aaker, J.L.; Benet-Matinez, V.; and J. Garolera (2001), “Consumption of symbols as carriers of culture: a study of Japanese and Spanish brand personality constructs,” in: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81, 492–508.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Aaker, D. (2004), ”Brand Portfolio Strategy,” New York, Free Press.Google Scholar
  6. Azoulay, A. and J.N., Kapferer (2003), “Do brand personality scales really measure brand personali-ty?,” in: Brand management, 11, 143–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bagozzi, R.P.; Gopinath M. and P.U. Nyer (1999), “The role of emotions in marketing,” in: Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 27(2), 184–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Batra, R.; Lenk, P. and M. Wedel (2010), “Brand extension: brand-category personality fit,” in: Journal of Marketing Research, 47(2), 335–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bhat, S. and S.K. Reddy (2001), “The impact of parent brand attribute associations and affect on brand extension evaluation,” in: Journal of Business Research, 53 (3), 111–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bottomley, P. A. and S.J.S. Holden (2001), “Do we really know how consumers evaluate brand extensions? Empirical generalizations based on secondary analysis of eight studies,” in: Journal of Marketing Research, 38 (4), 494–500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cauberghe, V. and P. De Pelsmacker (2011), “Adoption intentions toward interactive digital televi-sion among advertising professionals,” in: Journal of Interactive Advertising, 11(2),
  12. Czellar, S. (2003), “Consumer attitude toward brand extensions: An integrative model and research propositions,” in: International Journal of Research in Marketing, 20 (1), 97–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dens, N. and P. De Pelsmacker (2010), “Attitudes toward the extension and parent brand in re-sponse to extension advertising,” in: Journal of Business Research, 63 (11), 1237–1244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. de Ruyter, K. and M. Wetzels (2000), âThe role of corporate image and extension similarity in service brand extensions,† in: Journal of Economic Psychology, 21 (6), 639–659.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Diamantopoulos, A.; Smith, G. and I. Grime (2005), “The impact of brand extensions on brand personality: Experimental evidence,” in: European Journal of Marketing, 39 (1/2), 129–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ehrenfeld, J.R. (2008), “Sustainability by design,” New Haven, Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Esch, F.R. (2004), “ Strategie und Technik der Marken Führung,“ München, Vahln.Google Scholar
  18. Fiske, S. T. and M.A. Pavelchak (1986), “Category-based versus piecemeal-based affective respons-es: Developments in schema-triggered affect,” in: Sorrentino R. M. and Higgins E. T. (Eds.), The handbook of motivation and cognition, volume 1: Foundations of social behavior), New York, Guilford, 167–203.Google Scholar
  19. Geuens, M.; Weijters, B. and K. De Wulf (2009), “A New Measure of Brand Personality,” in: International Journal of Research in Marketing, 26 (1), 97–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Jeong, S. and K. Jung (2013), “Effects Of Brand Personality Attitude, Perceived Quality On Brand Extension Evaluations And Brand Personality Changes,”, accessed 20 February 2013.
  21. Keller K.L. (2008 ), “Strategic Brand Management. Building, measuring and managing brand equity,” Upper Saddle, River NJ, Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  22. Keller, K. L. and S. Sood (2003), “Brand equity dilution,” in: MIT Sloan Management Review, 45 (1), 12–15.Google Scholar
  23. Kim C.K.;Han D. and (2001), “The effect of brand personality and brand personification on brand loyalty.: Applying theory of social identification,” Japanese Psychological Research, 43, 195–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lau, K.C. and I. Phau (2007), “Extending symbolic brands using their personality: Examining antecedents and implications towards brand image fit and brand dilution,” in: Psychology & Marketing, 24 (5), 421–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Martínez, E. and L. de Chernatony (2004), “The effect of brand extension strategies upon brand image,” in: Journal of Consumer Marketing, 21 (1), 39–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Martínez, E.; Montaner, T. and J.M. Pina (2009), “Brand extension feedback: The role of Advertis-ing,” in: Journal of Business Research, 62 (3), 305–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Martínez, E. and J.M. Pina (2003), “The negative impact of brand extension on parent brand Im-age,” in: Journal of Product & Brand Management, 12 (7), 432–446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Midgley, D. F. (1983), “Patterns of interpersonal information seeking for the purchase of a symbolic product,” in: Journal of Marketing Research, 20 (1), 74–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Milberg, S. J. and F. Sinn (2008), “Vulnerability of global brands to negative feedback effects,” in: Journal of Business Research, 61 (6), 684–690.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Moons, I. and P. De Pelsmacker (2012), “Emotions as determinants of electric car usage intention,” Journal of Marketing Management, 28 (3–4), 195–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Pandey, A. (2009), “Understanding consumer perception of brand personality,”, accessed 20 February 2013.Google Scholar
  32. Park, C. W.; Jaworski, B. J. and D.J. MacInnis (1986), “Strategic brand concept-image manage-ment,” in: Journal of Marketing, 50 (4), 135–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Park, J.-W.; Kim, K.-H. and J. Kim (2002), “Acceptance of brand extensions: Interactive influences of product category similarity, typicality of claimed benefits, and brand relationship quality,” in: Advances in Consumer Research, 29 (1), 190–198.Google Scholar
  34. Park, C. W. and S. Young (1986), “Consumer response to television commercials: The impact of involvement and background music on brand attitude formation,” in: Journal of Marketing Re-search, 23 (1), 11–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Patro, S. K. and A.K. Jaiswal (2003), “Consumer evaluations of brand extensions: Evidence from India,” in: Journal of the Academy of Business and Economics, 1, 1–13.Google Scholar
  36. Roedder John, D.; Loken, B. and C. Joiner (1998), “The negative impact of extensions: Can flagship products be diluted?,” in: Journal of Marketing, 62 (1), 19–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Supphellen, M.; Eismann, Ø. And L.E. Hem (2004), “Can advertisements for brand extensions revitalize flagship products? An experiment,” in: International Journal of Advertising, 23 (2), 173–196.Google Scholar
  38. Swaminathan, V.; Fox, R. J. and S.K. Reddy (2001), “The impact of brand extension introduction on choice,” in: Journal of Marketing, 65 (4), 1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Product developmentUniversity of AntwerpAntwerpenBelgium
  2. 2.University of AntwerpAntwerpBelgium

Personalised recommendations