Unemployment and Social Involvement— Relationships and Mechanisms
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Following Esser’s (1996, 1999, 2002) and Lindenberg’s (1990, 2001a, 2001b, 2008) theoretical approaches, it is possible to conceptualize people’s actions as a result of two factors. First, people estimate the benefits associated with different possible actions and decide on the one with the highest utility for social approval and physical well-being. Second, the benefits people attribute to different actions depend on opportunities and constraints set by external conditions and how people evaluate those conditions. Therefore, how changes in employment status affect social involvement depends first on the availability, costs, resources, and rewards associated with employment and second on the availability, costs, resources, and rewards associated with different forms of social involvement. This is shown in Figure 18 below.
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