Communities are voluntary associations of actors united by a shared instrumental goal (West and Lakhani 2008). Communities represent a complementary asset (Teece 1986), exhibit a pool of knowledge (Lesser and Prusak; Swan et al. 2002), and are a medium for problemsolving (Brown and Duguid 1991; Hargadon and Bechky 2006). Firms can capture value through participation and can decide to participate in a community in two fundamentally different ways (Dahlander and Gann 2010): outbound knowledge, meaning giving information into the community by revealing or selling knowledge; and inbound information, understood as obtaining information from the community and its users by sourcing or acquiring knowledge. The strategic opportunities lying between the two ways span from minimal selective revealing of knowledge (Henkel 2006) up to relinquishing control and ownership of the product (West and O'Mahony 2008).
KeywordsDiscrete Choice Experiment Open Initiative Open Source Community Complementary Asset User Heterogeneity
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