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Cumulative impacts of offshore windfarms

  • Hans-Peter Damian
  • Thomas Merck
Chapter

Abstract

Offshore windfarms intrude upon an environment already heavily affected by human activities such as shipping and fishing. As they are large and complex installations and given the large numbers planned, offshore windfarms can be expected to have significant impacts on marine ecosystems with long-lasting effects from both construction and operation. Environmental impacts of offshore windfarms include destruction of the sea bottom and benthic communities, disruption of migrating species such as birds via barrier effects, and disturbance of sound-sensitive marine species through increased underwater noise. The various impacts affect species both concurrently and sequentially at different life stages and should therefore be assessed from a cumulative perspective.

Keywords

Marine Mammal Impulsive Noise Harbour Porpoise Offshore Wind Turbine Pile Driving 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hans-Peter Damian
    • 1
  • Thomas Merck
    • 2
  1. 1.Federal Environment AgencyDessau-RoßlauGermany
  2. 2.Branch Office Isle of VilmFederal Agency for Nature ConservationPutbusGermany

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