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Äthiopien – Zivilgesellschaftliche politische Arbeit in autoritärem Umfeld

  • Wondwosen TeshomeEmail author
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Zusammenfassung

Dieser Beitrag beschäftigt sich mit der politischen Partizipation von zivilgesellschaftlichen Organisationen in drei aufeinanderfolgenden Regime-Perioden in Äthiopien. Während des Kaiserreichs (bis 1974) hatten zivilgesellschaftliche Akteure nur sehr geringe Spielräume, nutzten diese aber für systemkritische Arbeit. Vor allem Gewerkschaften von ArbeiterInnen, LehrerInnen und Studierenden waren von Bedeutung. In der revolutionären Periode (1974–1991) konnten systemfreundliche Organisationen wie Bauernverbände, Arbeiterverbände, Nachbarschaftsgruppen durchaus auch auf politischer Ebene mitwirken – solange sie das System stützten. Nach dem Regimewechsel 1991 engagierten sich zahlreiche Organisationen – Lobbygruppen, Menschenrechtsgruppen, Frauenrechtsorganisationen, Gewerkschaften – politisch, nun erneut in zumeist systemkritischem Grundton. Seinen Höhepunkt erreichte diese Phase der politischen Partizipation im Vorfeld und während der Wahlen 2005. Die aktive Beteiligung von zivilgesellschaftlichen Organisationen im Wahlprozess, vor allem in der Wahlbeobachtung und durch Programme politischer Bildungsarbeit für WählerInnen führte zu schweren Rückschlägen im politischen Transitionsprozess. Der Beitrag analysiert die negative Reaktion der Regierung auf die politische Arbeit der Zivilgesellschaft in dieser Phase und beschreibt den gegenwärtigen Status von Zivilgesellschaft im Land.

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.WienÖsterreich

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