This year Linux celebrates its 20th anniversary.2 What makes this event interesting for this dissertation is that Linux, along with other initiatives like Apache or Mozilla, fundamentally changed our understanding of how innovations are created. Until 20 years ago, innovation development mostly took place in designated research and development (R&D) departments (Rothwell, 1994), which did not differ significantly from what Thomas Edison established at Menlo Park in 1876. Linux was one of the first organizations to deviate from this traditional approach of developing innovations in designated R&D departments by relying on innovation communities instead (Lerner & Tirole, 2002).
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