Operationalisation and data analysis



The following chapter introduces the measurement models that were used in the empirical study. These measurement tools include scales that describe certain characteristics of the management team, especially prior professional experiences. Information regarding these attributes can be obtained through direct questions, whereas the examined aspects of the strategic decision making processes in firms must be collected indirectly because these processes are not observable.


Covariance Marketing Expense Hunt 


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Copyright information

© Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.St.GallenSwitzerland

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