Retailers are internationalizing increasingly, although retail internationalization is not generally a new phenomenon. In a historical context, internationalization by Dutch and English trading houses was reported as far back as the Middle Ages (Zentes, Swoboda and Foscht 2012) as well as during the age of industrialization, when the first foreign direct investments (FDI) in the British retail market were documented (Godley and Fletcher 2000).


Europe Marketing Assure Posit Sine 

Copyright information

© Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stefan Elsner
    • 1
  1. 1.Universität TrierTrierGermany

Personalised recommendations