France has no significant fossil fuel resources. In order to meet French energy demand and reduce its dependence on energy imports, the French government, responding to the energy crisis in the 1970s, decided that large, centralized, state-owned nuclear power plants (the first of which – Chinon-A1 – had been con-nected to the grid in France in 1963 under the then President, Charles de Gaulle,)154 would be the most effective response to rising energy demand (Had-jilambrinos 2000: 1115). Following the Programme Électronucléaire of 1974, nuclear electricity production has increased from 15 TWh in 1973 to 439 TWh in 2007 (Eurostat 2009b; MEEDDAT 2008a).
KeywordsEnergy Efficiency Energy Saving Heat Pump Policy Instrument Energy Market
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