The quotations are from a study of the IEA that is more than 20 years old. Back then most the policy instruments, or incentive mechanisms, to foster end-use efficiency were already in place – including utility programmes. Many of the elements and objectives have persisted: energy security, cost effectiveness and environmental benefits are still among the objectives of fostering end-use energy efficiency. Similar technologies are still believed to hold a big energy-saving potential. However, the situation has somewhat changed: in 1989, climate change was not as prominent on the political agenda as it is today, and energy markets were on the point of being liberalized2
KeywordsDioxide Manifold Europe Income Nism
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