The quotations are from a study of the IEA that is more than 20 years old. Back then most the policy instruments, or incentive mechanisms, to foster end-use efficiency were already in place – including utility programmes. Many of the elements and objectives have persisted: energy security, cost effectiveness and environmental benefits are still among the objectives of fostering end-use energy efficiency. Similar technologies are still believed to hold a big energy-saving potential. However, the situation has somewhat changed: in 1989, climate change was not as prominent on the political agenda as it is today, and energy markets were on the point of being liberalized2
KeywordsClean Development Mechanism Policy Instrument Emission Trading Scheme Demand Side Management Energy Efficiency Policy
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