On the Pharmacologic Actions of 21-Carbon Hormonal Steroids (“Glucocorticoids”) of the Adrenal Cortex in Mammals

  • Alfonso H. Janoski
  • Joyce C. Shaver
  • Nicholas P. Christy
  • William Rosner
Part of the Handbuch der experimentellen Pharmakologie / Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology book series (HEP, volume 14 / 3)


This review deals with pharmacologic, not physiologic actions of 21-carbon hormonal steroids in mammals. The compounds under review are the so-called “glucocorticoids”, as opposed to those C21 compounds that act chiefly on the metabolism of water and electrolytes. [The action of the principal mammalian “mineralocorticoid”, aldosterone, is the subject of a recent, exhaustive and critical review (Sharp and Leaf, 1966).] The term “pharmacologic actions” means simply those hormonal effects observed when amounts of steroid experimentally used in in vitro or in vivo studies are present in concentrations greater than those found or believed to exist under natural or “physiologic” conditions. Some of the studies cited here were carried out before physiologic concentrations of naturally occurring hormonal steroids were known with accuracy. Some were done without much regard for the ultimate concentration of steroid at the cellular level under basal conditions, a quantity which is, in fact, not yet known, although many data are available concerning the concentrations of steroids in various body fluids, e.g., plasma, cerebrospinal fluid, bile, milk, saliva, etc. Therefore, it has not always been possible to distinguish precisely between physiologic and pharmacologic effects. However, it seems highly probable that in most of the work cited the concentrations of hormone used were greater than those achieved under basal conditions by the endogenous secretion of the mammalian adrenal cortex. For cortisol, generally considered the major, i. e., the most abundant glucocorticoid secreted by the human adrenal cortex, the plasma concentration ranges from about 5 to 25 μg per 100 ml with a mean of 10 to 16; the exact number depends upon the method of measurement (C. COPE, 1964a).


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© Springer-Verlag Berlin · Heidelberg 1968

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alfonso H. Janoski
  • Joyce C. Shaver
  • Nicholas P. Christy
  • William Rosner

There are no affiliations available

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