Identification of Acetylcholine and Related Esters of Biological Origin

  • V. P. Whittaker
Part of the Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology book series (HEP, volume 15)

Abstract

Although acetylcholine (ACh) has been shown beyond reasonable doubt to be the transmitter substance at certain cholinergic nerve endings, there are several facts which warn us against attributing a too exclusive role to this compound. First, by analogy with other transmitters (e.g., the catecholamines) the transmitter role is likely to be subserved by a group of related substances rather than by a single compound. Second, ACh occurs in non-nervous tissue and is so widely distributed in nature as to suggest a non-nervous function for it. Third, several other carboxylic esters of choline possessing related or contrasting pharmacological properties are known to occur in nature. Though so far their presence in nervous tissue has not been unequivocally demonstrated, this tissue can undoubtedly synthesize homologues of ACh in vitro (Gardiner and Whittaker 1954, Frontali 1958, Berry and Whittaker 1959) and is well equipped, by its possession of two forms of cholinesterase (ChE), to destroy them rapidly. The possibility that ACh may not be the only transmitter substance at cholinergic nerve endings or that its function may be interfered with under pathological conditions by the appearance of similar compounds must be borne in mind when considering the mode of action of anti-cholinesterase (anti-ChE) agents and justifies the inclusion of a chapter on the identification of ACh and related esters in a monograph on this subject.

Keywords

Acetyl Atropine Perchlorate Hydroxylamine Ethylene Dichloride 

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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1963

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  • V. P. Whittaker

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