Molecular Structure

  • Sune Svanberg
Part of the Springer Series on Atomic, Optical, and Plasma Physics book series (SSAOPP, volume 6)

Abstract

A molecule is formed by the binding of two or more atoms in such a way that the total energy is lower than the sum of the energies of the constituents. The bonds are normally of ionic or covalent nature. Particularly weak bonds occur in van der Waals molecules. The energy-level diagrams of molecules are significantly more complicated than those of atoms since, apart from energy levels corresponding to different electronic arrangements, there are also different states corresponding to vibrational and rotational motion. The structure is schematically shown in Fig. 3.1. This chapter will mainly be concerned with diatomic molecules.

Keywords

Arsenic Fullerene Tetrachloride Tellurium Buckminsterfullerene 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [3.1]
    C.E. Banwell, E.M. Mccash: Fundamentals of Molecular Spectroscopy, 4th edn. (McGraw-Hill, London 1983)Google Scholar
  2. [3.2]
    G.B. Barrow: The Structure of Molecules (Benjamin, New York 1963)Google Scholar
  3. [3.3]
    J.I. Steinfeld: Molecules and Radiation, 2nd edn. (MIT Press, Cambridge, MA 1985)Google Scholar
  4. [3.4]
    G.W. King: Spectroscopy and Molecular Structure (Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York 1964)Google Scholar
  5. [3.5]
    M. Weissbluth: Atoms and Molecules (Academic Press, New York 1978)Google Scholar
  6. [3.6]
    W.G. Richards, P.R. Scott: Structure and Spectra of Molecules (Wiley, Chichester 1985)Google Scholar
  7. [3.7]
    G. Herzberg: Molecular Spectra and Molecular Structure. I. The Spectra of Diatomic Molecules (Krieger Publ., Malabar, FL 1991)Google Scholar
  8. [3.8]
    G. Herzberg: Molecular Spectra and Molecular Structure, II. Infrared and Raman Spectra of Polyatomic Molecules (Krieger Publ., Malabar, FL 1991)Google Scholar
  9. [3.9]
    G. Herzberg: Molecular Spectra and Molecular Structure. III. Electronic Spectra and Electronic Structure of Polyatomic Molecules (Krieger Publ., Malabar, FL 1991)Google Scholar
  10. [3.10]
    G. Herzberg: The Spectra and Structures of Simple Free Radicals–An Introduction to Molecular Spectroscopy (Dover, New York 1971, 1988)Google Scholar
  11. K.P. Huber, G. Herzberg: Molecular Spectra and Molecular Structure. IV Constants of Diatomic Molecules (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York 1979)Google Scholar
  12. H. Lefebre-Brion, R.W. Field: Perturbations in the Spectra of Diatomic Molecules (Academic, Orlando 1986)Google Scholar
  13. [3.11]
    L.M. Sverdlov, M.A. Kovner, E.P. Krainov: Vibrational Spectra of Polyatomic Molecules (Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem 1974)Google Scholar
  14. [3.12]
    R.F. Hout Jr.: Pictorial Approach to Molecular Structure and Reactivity (Wiley, New York 1984)Google Scholar
  15. [3.13]
    R.W.B. Pearse, A.G. Gaydon: The Identification of Molecular Spectra (Chapman and Hall, London 1950)Google Scholar
  16. [3.14]
    P.J. Mohr, W.L. Wiese (eds.): Atomic and Molecular Data and their Applications (AIP Press, New York 1998)Google Scholar
  17. [3.15]
    B.S. Tsukerblat: Group Theory in Chemistry and Spectroscopy (Academic Press, London 1994)Google Scholar
  18. [3.16]
    D.C. Harris, M.D. Bertolucci: Symmetry and Spectroscopy (Dover, New York 1990)Google Scholar
  19. [3.17]
    D.M. Bishop: Group Theory and Chemistry (Dover, New York 1993)MATHGoogle Scholar
  20. [3.18]
    D.A. McQuarrie: Quantum Chemistry (Oxford University Press, Oxford 1983) Chap. 10Google Scholar
  21. [3.19]
    A.C. Hurley: Introduction to the Electron Theory of Small Molecules (Academic Press, London 1976)Google Scholar
  22. [3.20]
    R. Mcweeny, B.T. Pickup: Quantum theory of molecular electronic structure. Rep. Prog. Phys. 43, 1065 (1980)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. [3.21]
    A. Hinchliffe: Ab Initio Determination of Molecular Electronic Structure (Hilger, Bristol 1987)Google Scholar
  24. [3.22]
    Ch. Jungen: Molecular Applications of Quantum Defect Theory (IOP Publishing, Bristol 1996)MATHGoogle Scholar
  25. [3.23]
    R.M. Dreizier, E.K.U. Gross: Density Functional Theory (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 1990)Google Scholar
  26. R.G. Parr, W.T. Yang: Density Functional Theory of Atoms and Molecules (Oxford Science, Oxford 1989)Google Scholar
  27. [3.24]
    P.v.R. Schleyer, (ed.): Encyclopaedia of Computational Chemistry (Wiley, New York 1998)Google Scholar
  28. W.J. Hehre, L. Radom, P.v.R. Schleyer, J.A. Pople: Ab Initio Molecular Orbital Theory (Wiley, New York 1996)Google Scholar
  29. [3.25]
    R.F. Curl, R.E. Smalley: Probing C60. Science 242, 1017 (1988)Google Scholar
  30. [3.26]
    H. Kroto: Space, stars, C60, and soot. Science 242, 1139 (1988)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. [3.27]
    H. Haberland: Clusters of Atoms and Molecules I, Springer Series in Chemical Physics, Vol. 52 (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 1994)Google Scholar
  32. [3.28]
    H. Haberland: Clusters of Atoms and Molecules II (Springer Series in Chemical Physics, Vol. 56 (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. [3.29]
    Acc. Chem. Res. 25 (3) (1992)Google Scholar
  34. [3.30]
    S. Ijima: Helical microtubules of graphitic carbon. Nature 354, 56 (1991)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. [3.31]
    P.M. Ajayan, T.W. Ebbesen: Nanometer size tubes of carbon. Rep. Prog. Phys. 60, 1025 (1997)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. A. Rosén: A periodic table in three dimensions: A sightseeing tour in the nanometer world. In: Modern Trends in Atomic Physics, Adv. Quantum Chem. 30, 235 (1998)Google Scholar
  37. T.W. Ebbesen: Carbon Nanotubes (CRC Press, Boca Raton 1997)Google Scholar
  38. R. Saito, G. Dresselhaus, M.S. Dresselhaus: Physical Properties of Carbon Nanotubes (Imperial College Press, London 1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sune Svanberg
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PhysicsLund Institute of TechnologyLundSweden

Personalised recommendations