In this chapter, we will give a brief introduction to cryptography, focusing on aspects that are important in conjunction with smart cards. We start by a short overview of the predominant cryptographic algorithms. Then we present commonly used cryptographic protocols for authentication and secure transmission of data and give some examples on how these protocols are used in the smart card area. Finally, we give an example for usage of smart cards to support cryptographic software on a PC. It shows how to use smart cards for private-key operations required by TLS (Transport Layer Security, the successor of SSL 3.0).
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