Geburtshilfe pp 697-751 | Cite as

Pathologische Geburt

  • G. Drack
  • H. Schneider

Zusammenfassung

Diagnose, Therapie und auch Prophylaxe von Störungen des Geburtsablaufes gehören zu den zentralen geburtsmedizinischen Aufgaben. Die Vielzahl möglicher Störfaktoren des Geburtsablaufes läßt das Thema „Pathologische Geburt” komplex erscheinen. Das vorliegende Kapitel ist nach pathogenetischen wie auch praktisch wichtigen Problemstellungen gegliedert. In dieser Gliederung spiegelt sich teilweise die herkömmliche Gruppierung von Störungen des Geburtsablaufes nach den Faktoren Wehen, Kind und Geburtsweg (power, passenger, passage). Die Interdependenz dieser 3 Faktoren ist jedoch groß und schließt eine einfache Dreiteilung des gesamten Kapitels aus.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literatur

  1. Abitdol MM, Taylor UB, Karimi A (1996) Long–term sequelae of prolonged labor and difficult deliveries. Perinat Neonat Med 1: 64–70Google Scholar
  2. ACOG (1995) Dystocia and the augmentation of labor. ACOG Technical Bulletin 218, December 1995Google Scholar
  3. ACOG (1996) Practice Pattern Nr. 1, August 1995. Int J Gynecol Obstet 52: 90–98Google Scholar
  4. ACOG (1997) Committee Opinion Nr. 179, November 1996. Int J Gynecol Obstet 57: 89–90Google Scholar
  5. Adair CD, Sanchez-Ramos L, Whitaker D, McDyer DC, Farah L, Briones D (1996) Trial of labor in patients with a previous lower uterine vertical cesarean section. Am J Obstet Gynecol 174: 966–970PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Albers LL, Schiff M, Gorwoda JG (1996) The length of active labor in normal pregnancies. Obstet Gynecol 87: 355–359PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Allman ACJ, Genevier ESG, Johnson MR, Steer PJ (1996a) Head-to-cervix force: an important physiological variable in labour. 1. The temporal relation between head-to-cervix force and intrauterine pressure during labour. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 103: 763–768PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Allman ACJ, Genevier ESG, Johnson MR, Steer PJ (1996b) Head-to-cervix force: an important physiological variable in labour. 2. Peak active force, peak active pressure and mode of delivery. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 103: 769–775PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Arrowsmith S, Hamlin WC, Wall LL (1996) Obstructive labor injury complex: Obstetric fistular formation and the multifaceted morbidity of maternal birth trauma in the developing world. Obstet Gynecol Surv 51: 568–574PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Asakura H, Myers SA (1995) More than one previous cesarean delivery: a 5-year experience with 435 patients. Obstet Gynecol 185: 924–929Google Scholar
  11. Atkinson MW, Guinn D, Owen J, Hauth JC (1995) Does magnesium sulfate affect the length of labor induction in women with pregnancy-associated hypertension? Am J Obstet Gynecol 173: 1219–1222PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Barrett JM (1991) Funic reduction for the management of umbilical cord prolapse. Am J Obstet Gynecol 165: 654–657PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Barrett JFR, Savage J, Phillips K, Lilford RJ (1992) Randomized trial of amniotomy in labour versus the intention to leave membranes intact until the second stage. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 199: 5–9Google Scholar
  14. Beazley JM (1995) Special circumstances affecting labour. In: Whitfield CR (ed) Dewhurst’s textbook of obstetrics and gynaecology for postgraduates, 5th edn. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 312–332Google Scholar
  15. Berg TG, Rayburn WF (1992) Effects of analgesia on labor. Clin Obstet Gynecol 35: 457–463PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Bloom SL, McIntire DD, Kelly MA, Beimer HL, Burpo RH, Garcia MA, Leveno KJ (1998) Lack of effect of walking labor and delivery. New Engl J Med 339: 76–79 (Editorial: Managing labor – Never walk alone. New Engl J Med 339: 117–118)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Borell U, Fernström I (1981) Der Geburtsmechanismus. In: Käser O, Friedberg V, Ober KG, Thomsen K, Zander J (Hrsg) Gynäkologie und Geburtshilfe, 2. Aufl, Bd II/2. Thieme, Stuttgart, S 10.57–10.81Google Scholar
  18. Bottoms SF, Hirsch VJ, Sokol RJ (1987) Medical management of arrest disorders of labor: a current overview. Am J Obstet Gynecol 156:935–939PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Brisson-Carroll G, Fraser W, Bnéart G, Krauss I, Thornton J (1996) The effect of routine early amniotomy on spontaneous labor: a meta-analysis. Obstet Gynecol 187: 891–896Google Scholar
  20. Brooks GG, Lewis DF, Gallaspy JW, Thompson H, Dunnihoo DR (1992) Labor in the gravida with 10 or more years between pregnancies. J Reprod Med 37: 336–338PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Bumm E (1919) Grundriß zum Studium der Geburtshilfe, 12. Aufl. Bergmann, WiesbadenGoogle Scholar
  22. Caldwell WE, Moloy HC (1933) Anatomical variations in the female pelvis and their effect in labor with a suggested classification. Am J Obstet Gynecol 26: 439Google Scholar
  23. Chalmers B, Wolman W (1993) Social support in labor – a selective review. J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol 14: 1–15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Chazotte C, Madden R, Cohen WR (1990) Labor patterns in women with previous cesareans. Obstet Gynecol 75: 350–335PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Chelmow D, Laros RK Jr (1992) Maternal and neonatal outcomes after oxytocin augmentation in patients undergoing a trial of labor after prior cesarean section. Obstet Gynecol 180: 966–971Google Scholar
  26. Chelmow D, Kilpatrick SJ, Laros RK (1993) Maternal and neonatal outcomes after prolonged latent phase. Obstet Gynecol 81: 486–491PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Chibbar R, Miller FD, Mitchell BF (1993) Synthesis of oxytocin in amnion, chorion, and decidua may influence the timing of human parturition. J Clin Invest 91: 185–192PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Chua S, Kurup A, Arulkumaran S, Ratnam SS (1990) Augmentation of labor: Does internal tocography result in better obstetric outcome than external tocography? Obstet Gynecol 76: 164–167PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Colcher AE, Sussmann W (1994) A practical technique for roentgen pelvimetry with a new positioning. Am J Roentgenol 151: 207–214Google Scholar
  30. Critchlow CW, Leet TL, Benedetti TJ, Daling JR (1994) Risk factors and infant outcomes associated with umbilical cord prolapse: a population-based case-control study among births in Washington State. Am J Obstet Gynecol 170: 613–618PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Crowther C, Enkin M, Keirse MJNC, Brown I (1989) Monitoring the progress of labour. In: Chalmers I, Enkin M, Keirse MJNC (eds) Effective care in pregnancy and childbirth, vol 2. Oxford University Press, pp 833–845Google Scholar
  32. Del Valle GO, Adair CD, Sanchez-Ramos L, Gaudier FL, McDyer DC, Delke I (1994) Cervical ripening in women with previous cesarean deliveries. Int J Gynecol Obstet 47: 17–21Google Scholar
  33. Deutinger J, Bernaschek G (1986) Die vaginosonographische Pelvimetrie als neue Methode zur sonographischen Bestimmung der inneren Beckenmaße. Geburtsh Frauenheilkd 46: 345–347Google Scholar
  34. Devoe LD, Samuel S, Prescott P, Work BA (1996) Predicting the duration of the first stage of spontaneous labor using a neural network. J Maternal Fetal Med 5: 256–261Google Scholar
  35. Dizon-Townson D, Ward K (1997) The genetics of labor. Clin Obstet Gynecol 40: 479–484PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Drife J (1997) Maternity services: the Audit Commission reports. BMJ 314: 844PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Dudley DJ (1997) Oxytocin: Use and abuse, science and art. Clin Obstet Gynecol 40: 516–524PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Enkin M (1989) Labour and delivery following previous caesarean section. In: Chalmers I, Enkin M, Keirse MJNC (eds) Effective care in pregnancy and childbirth, vol 2. Oxford University Press, pp 1196–1215Google Scholar
  39. Fischer WM (1981a) Formen der Uterusmotilitätsstörungen. In: Fischer WM (Hrsg) Kardiotokographie. Diagnostische Methoden in der Perinatologie. Thieme, Stuttgart, S 120–124Google Scholar
  40. Fischer WM (1981b) Herzfrequenzmuster in der Austreibungsperiode und ihre klinische Signifikanz. In: Fischer WM (Hrsg) Kardiotokographie. Diagnostische Methoden in der Perinatologie. Thieme, Stuttgart, S 269–278Google Scholar
  41. Flamm BL, Goings JR (1989) Vaginal birth after cesarean section: Is suspected fetal macrosomia a contraindication? Obstet Gynecol 74: 694–697PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Flamm BL, Lim OW, Jones C, Fallon D, Newman LA, Mantis JK (1988) Vaginal birth after cesarean section: Results of a multicenter study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 158: 1079–1084PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Fraser W, Maunsell E, Hodnett E, Moutquin JM (1997) Randomized controlled trial of a prenatal vaginal birth after cesarean section education and support program. Am J Obstet Gynecol 176: 419–425PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Friedman EA (1978) Labor: Clinical evaluation and management, 2nd edn. Appleton-Century-Crofts, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  45. Gardberg M, Tuppurainen M (1994a) Persistent occiput posterior presentation – a clinical problem. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 73: 45–47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Gardberg M, Tuppurainen M (1994b) Anterior placental location predisposes for occiput posterior presentation near term. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 73: 151–152PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Gardberg M, Tuppurainen M (1995) Dorsoposterior fetal position near term – a sonographic finding worth noting? Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 74: 402–403PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Hall MH (1990) Commentary: Confidential enquiry into maternal death. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 97: 752–753 (letter)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Handa VL, Laros RK (1993) Active-phase arrest in labor: predictors of cesarean delivery in a nulliparous population. Obstet Gynecol 81: 758–763PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Hanzal E, Kainz C, Hoffmann G, Deutinger J (1993) An analysis of the prediction of cephalopelvic disproportion. Arch Gynecol Obstet 253: 161–166PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Harlass FE, Duff P (1990) The duration of labor in primiparas undergoing vaginal birth after cesarean delivery. Obstet Gynecol 75: 45–47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Johnson N, Johnson VA, Gupta JK (1991) Maternal positions during labor. Obstet Gynecol Surv 46: 428–434PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Johnson N, Lilford R, Guthrie K, Thornton J, Barker M, Kelly (1997) Randomised trial comparing a policy of early with selective amniotomy in uncomplicated labour at term. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 104: 340–346PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Juntunen K, Kirkinen P (1994) Partogram of a grand multipara: different descent slope compared with an ordinary parturient. J Perinat Med 22: 213–218PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Käser O, Richter R (1981) Geburt aus Kopflage. In: Käser O, Friedberg V, Ober KG, Thomsen K, Zander J (Hrsg) Gynäkologie und Geburtshilfe, 2. Aufl, Bd II/2. Thieme, Stuttgart, S 12.30–12.65Google Scholar
  56. Katz Z, Shoham Z, Lancet M, Blickstein I, Mogilner BM, Zalel Y (1988) Management of labor with umbilical cord prolapse: a 5-year study. Obstet Gynecol 72: 278–281PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Keirse MJNC (1989) Augmentation of labour. In: Chalmers I, Enkin M, Keirse MJNC (Hrsg) Effective care in pregnancy and childbirth, vol 2. Oxford University Press, pp 951–966Google Scholar
  58. Kilpatrick SI, Laros RK Jr (1989) Characteristics of normal labor. Obstet Gynecol 74: 85–87PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Kirchhoff H (1974) Der Geburtsmechanismus beim „Langen Becken“. Geburtsh Frauenheilkd 34: 418–425Google Scholar
  60. Kirchhoff H (1983) Beckenanomalien – ihre klinische Bedeutung heute. Diagnostik und Konsequenzen. Gynäkol Prax 7: 19–28Google Scholar
  61. Krauss T, Osmers R, Westerfeld S, Metzger I, Puchta J, Kuhn W (1997) Die Bedeutung des Langen Beckens nach Kirchhoff in der heutigen Geburtshilfe. Z Geburtsh Neonatol 201: 247–252Google Scholar
  62. Krishnamurty S, Fairlie F, Cameron AD, Walker JJ, Mackenzie JR (1991) The role of postnatal x-ray pelvimetry after cesare an section in the management of subsequent delivery. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 98: 716–718Google Scholar
  63. Künzel W, Link G (1996) Überwachung und Leitung der Geburt aus Schädellage. In: Künzel W, Wulf KH (Hrsg) Geburt I. Klinik der Frauenheilkunde und Geburtshilfe, 3. Aufl, Bd 6. Urban & Schwarzenberg, München, S 165–189Google Scholar
  64. Lagrew DC Jr, Morgan MA (1996) Decreasing the cesarean section rate in a private hospital: success without mandated clinical changes. Am J Obstet Gynecol 174: 184–191PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Lazor LZ, Philipson EH, Ingardia CJ, Kobetitsch ES, Curry SL (1993) A randomized comparison of 15- and 40-minute dosing protocols for labor augmentation and induction. Obstet Gynecol 82: 1009–1012PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Leung AS, Farmer RM, Leung EK, Medearis AL, Paul RH (1993) Risk factors associated with uterine rupture during trial of labor after cesarean delivery: a case-control study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 168: 1358–1363PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Lopez-Zeno JA (1997) Active management of labor: The American experience. Clin Obstet Gynecol 40 (3): 510–515PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Lupe PJ, Gross TL (1986) Maternal upright posture and mobility in labor – a review. Obstet Gynecol 67: 727–734PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Malone FD, Geary M, Chelmow D, Stronge J, Boylan P, D’Alton ME (1996) Prolonged labor in nulliparas: Lessons from the active management of labor. Obstet Gynecol 88: 211–215PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Martius G (1985) Lehrbuch der Geburtshilfe, 11. Aufl. Thieme, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  71. McMahon MJ, Luther ER, Bowes WA, Olshan AF (1996) Comparison of a trial of labor with an elective second cesarean section. New Engl J Med 335: 689–695 (Comments: New Engl J Med 336: 658–659)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Melchert F, Wischnik A, Nalepa E (1995) The prevention of mechanical birth trauma by means of computer aided simulation of delivery by means of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging and finite element analysis. J Obstet Gynaecol 21: 195–207Google Scholar
  73. Melchior J, Bernard N (1985) Incidence and pattern of fetal heart rate alterations during labor. In: Künzel W (ed) Fetal heart rate monitoring. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York Tokyo, pp 73–81Google Scholar
  74. Menticoglou SM, Manning F, Harman C, Morrison I (1995) Perinatal outcome in relation to second–stage duration. Am J Obstet Gynecol 173: 906–912PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Merrill DC, Hunter SK (1995) Use of oxytocin for induction and augmentation of labor. Postgrad Obstet Gynecol 15: 1–6Google Scholar
  76. Meshari AA, De Silva S, Rahman I (1990) Fetal macrosomia-maternal risks and fetal outcome. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 32: 215–222PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Meyer S, de Grandi P, Kuntzer T, Hürlimann P, Schmidt N (1993) Birth trauma: its effect on the urine continence mechanisms. Gynäkol Geburtshilfl Rundsch 33: 236–242Google Scholar
  78. Morgan MA, Thurnau GR, Fishburne JI Jr (1986) The fetal-pelvic index as an indicator of fetal-pelvic disproportion: a preliminary report. Am J Obstet Gynecol 155: 608–613PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Murphy DJ, MacKenzie IZ (1995) The mortality and morbidity associated with umbilical cord prolapse. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 102: 826–830PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Myers SA, Gleicher N (1988) A successful program to lower cesarean-section rates. N Engl J Med 319: 1511–1516PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Nageotte MP, Larson D, Rumney PJ, Sidhu M, Hollenbach K (1997) Epidural analgesia compared with combined spinalepidural analgesia during labor in nulliparous women. New Engl J Med 337: 1715–1719PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Neuman M, Beller U, Lavie O, Aboulafia Y, Rabinowitz R, Diamant Y (1994) Intraparturn bimanual tocolytic-assisted reversal of face presentation: preliminary report. Obstet Gynecol 84: 146–148PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Nygaard JE, Rao SSC, Dawson JD (1997) Anal incontinence after anal sphincter disruption: a 30-year retrospective cohort study. Obstet Gynecol 89: 896–901PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. O’Driscoll K, Foley M, MacDonald D (1984) Active management of labor as an alternative to cesarean section for dystocia. Obstet Gynecol 63: 485–490PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Olàh KS, Gee H (1996) The active mismanagement of labour. Comment. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 103: 729–731PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Olàh KS, Gee H, Brown JS (1993) Cervical contractions: the response of the cervix to oxytocic stimulation in the latent phase of labour. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 100: 635–640PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. O’Sullivan G (1994) The stornach – fact and fantasy: eating and drinking during labor. Int Anesthesiol Clin 32: 31–44PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Owen J, Hauth JC (1992) Oxytocin for induction and augmentation of labor. Clin Obstet Gynecol 35: 464–475PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Parratt J, Taggart M, Wray S (1994) Abolition of contractions in the myometrium by acidification in vitro. Lancet 344: 717–718PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Paul RH (1996) Toward fewer cesarean sections – The role of a trial of labor (editorial). New Engl J Med 335: 735–736PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Pearl ML, Roberts JM, Laros RK, Hurd WW (1993) Vaginal delivery from the persistent occiput posterior position. J Reprod Med 38: 955–961PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Peisner DB, Rosen MG (1986) Transition from latent to active labor. Obstet Gynecol 68: 448–451PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Phelan JP, Ahn MO, Diaz F, Brar H, Rodriguez MH (1989) Twice a cesarean, always a cesarean? Obstet Gynecol 73: 161–165PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Philpott RH (1987) Functional analysis of cephalopelvic relation. In: Langnickel D (ed) Problems of the pelvic passageway. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York TokyoGoogle Scholar
  95. Piper JM, Bolling DR, Newton ER (1991) The second stage of labor: Factors influencing duration. Am J Obstet Gynecol 165:976–979PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Piquard F, Hsiung R, Mettauer M, Schaefer A, Haberey P, Dellenbach P (1988) The validity of fetal heart rate monitoring during the second stage of labor. Obstet Gynecol 72: 746–761PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Pridjian G (1992) Labor after prior cesarean section. Clin Obstet Gynecol 35: 445–456PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Pritchard JA, MacDonald PC, Gant NF (1985) William’s Obstetrics, 17th edn. Appleton-Century-Crofts, Norwalk/CTGoogle Scholar
  99. Pschyrembel W, Dudenhausen JW (1991) Praktische Geburtshilfe mit geburtshilflichen Operationen, 17. Aufl. De Gruyter, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  100. Quiel V (1991) Gesichtslagengeburten. Zentralbl Gynäkol 113: 1384–1387Google Scholar
  101. Ragosch V, Altinöz H, Hundertmark H, Entezami M (1997) Einfluß des mütterlichen Alters auf den Geburtsverlauf – Analyse bei Frauen über 40 Jahre. Z Geburtsh Neonatol 201: 86–90Google Scholar
  102. Rasmussen S, Bungum L, Hoie K (1994) Maternal age and duration of labor. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 73: 231–234PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Robson MS, Scudamore IW, Walsh SM (1996) Using the medical audit cycle to reduce cesarean section rates. Am J Obstet Gynecol 174: 199–205PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Rosen MG, Debanne SM, Thompson K (1989) Arrest disorders and infant brain damage. Obstet Gynecol 74: 321–324PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Rosen MG, Dickinson JC, Westhoff CL (1991) Vaginal birth after Cesarean: a meta-analysis of morbidity and mortality. Obstet Gynecol 77: 465–470PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Rouse DJ, McCollough C, Wren AL, Owen J, Hauth JC (1994) Active-phase labor arrest: A randomized trial of chorioamnion management. Obstet Gynecol 83: 937–940PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Rozenberg P, Goffinet F, Philippe HJ, Nisand I (1996) Ultrasonographic measurement of lower uterine segment to assess risk of defects of scarred uterus. Lancet 347: 281–284PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Sanchez-Ramos L, Quillen MJ, Kaunitz AM (1996) Randomized trial of oxytocin alone and with propranolol in the management of dysfunctional labor. Obstet Gynecol 88: 517–520PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Satin AJ, Leveno KJ, Sherman ML, Brewster DS, Cunningham FG (1992) High- versus low-dose oxytocin for labor stimulation. Obstet Gynecol 80: 111–116PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Schneider H, Beller FK (1997) Die Bedeutung des Hypoxierisikos bei der Geburt – eine Neubeurteilung. Frauenarzt 38: 324–330Google Scholar
  111. Shyken JM, Petrie RH (1995) Oxytocin to induce labor. Clin Obstet Gynecol 38: 232–245PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Spörri S, Gyr T, Schollerer A, Werlen S, Schneider H (1994) Methoden, Techniken und Beurteilungskriterien der geburtshilflichen Pelvimetrie. Z Geburtsh Perinatol 198: 37–46Google Scholar
  113. Spörri S, Hänggi W, Braghetti A, Vock P, Schneider H (1997) Pelvimetry by magnetic resonance imaging as a diagnostic tool to evaluate dystocia. Obstet Gynecol 89: 902–908PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Stone J, Lockwood CJ, Berkowitz GS, Lynch L, Alvarez M, Lapinski RH, Berkowitz RL (1992) Morbidity of failed labor in patients with prior cesarean section. Am J Obstet Gynecol 167: 1513–1517PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Sultan AH, Stanton SL (1996) Preserving the pelvic floor and perineum during childbirth – elective caesarean section? Br J Obstet Gynecol 103: 731–734Google Scholar
  116. Sultan AH, Kamm MA, Hudson CN, Thomas JM, Bartram CI (1993) Anal-sphincter disruption during vaginal delivery. N Engl J Med 329: 1905–1911PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Thornton JG (1996) Active management of labour. Does not reduce the rate of cesarean section. Editorial. BMJ 313: 378PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Thorp JA, Meyer BA, Cohen GR, Yeast JD, Hu D (1994) Epidural analgesia in labor and cesarean delivery for dystocia. Obstet Gynecol Surv 49: 362–369PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Thurnau GR, Hales KA, Morgan MA (1992) Evaluation of the fetal-pelvic relationship. Clin Obstet Gynecol 35: 570–581PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Turner MJ (1997) Delivery after one previous cesarean section. Am J Obstet Gynecol 176: 741–744PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Turner MJ, Rasmussen MJ, Turner JE, Boylan PC, MacDonald D, Stronge JM (1990) The influence of birth weight on labor in nulliparas. Obstet Gynecol 76: 159–163PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Vanner T, Gardosi J (1996) Intraparturn assessment of uterine activity. Baillière’s Clin Obstet Gynaecol 10: 243–257Google Scholar
  123. Weinstein D, Benshushan A, Tanos V, Zilberstein R, Rojansky N (1996) Predictive score for vaginal birth after cesarean section. Am J Obstet Gynecol 174: 192–198PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Weissman A, Jakobi P, Zahi S, Zimmer EZ (1990) The effect of cervical cerclage on the course of labor. Obstet Gynecol 76: 168–171PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Welsch H (1997a) Müttersterblichkeit während Schwangerschaft und post abortum. Definitionen – Amtliche Landesstatistiken. Gynäkologe 30: 682–693Google Scholar
  126. Welsch H (1997b) Müttersterblichkeit während Geburt und Wochenbett bei vaginaler Entbindung und Sectio caearea. Gynäkologe 30: 742–756Google Scholar
  127. Westin B (1987) X-ray pelvimetry. In: Langnickel D (ed) Problems of the pelvic passageway. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York Tokyo, pp 3–14Google Scholar
  128. WHO (1994) World Health Organization partograph in management of labour. World Health Organization Maternal Health and Safe Motherhood Programme. Lancet 343: 1399–1404 (Comment in: Lancet 344: 193)Google Scholar
  129. Wischnik A, Lehmann KJ, Zahn K, Georgi M, Melchert F (1992) Veränderungen der pelvinen Anatomie in 8 Jahrzehnten – Computertomographische Untersuchungen zu geburtshilflich relevanten Beckenmaßen. Z Geburtsh Perinatol 196: 49–54Google Scholar
  130. Wulf KH (1996) Operative Entbindungsverfahren: Abdominale Schnittentbindung. In: Künzel W, Wulf KH (Hrsg) Geburt I. Klinik der Frauenheilkunde und Geburtshilfe, 3. Aufl, Bd 6. Urban & Schwarzenberg, München, S 267–283Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. Drack
  • H. Schneider

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations