Lifting of the Orbital Degeneracy in the Spectra of Alkali Atoms

  • Hermann Haken
  • Hans Christoph Wolf


After the spectra of atoms with only one electron, the next simplest spectra are those of alkali atoms.


Valence Electron Nuclear Charge Closed Shell Principal Quantum Number Sodium Atom 
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  1. H.H. Kuhn: Atomic Spectra, 3rd ed. (Longmans, London 1969)Google Scholar
  2. M. Weissbluth: Atoms and Molecules: Student Edition (Academic Press, New York 1980)Google Scholar
  3. H.E. White: An Introduction to Atomic Spectra (McGraw-Hill, New York 1954)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hermann Haken
    • 1
  • Hans Christoph Wolf
    • 2
  1. 1.Institut für Theoretische PhysikUniversität StuttgartStuttgartGermany
  2. 2.Physikalisches InstitutUniversität StuttgartStuttgartGermany

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