Epidemiologie

  • Dietrich Reinhardt

Zusammenfassung

Aufgrund des Fehlens einheitlicher Definitionen, der Unzulänglichkeit der diagnostischen Methoden im Säuglings- und Kleinkindalter und der häufig uncharakteristischen Symptomatik in den ersten Lebensjahren, schwanken die Angaben über die Häufigkeit des Asthma bronchiale erheblich. Nach Angaben der WHO (1974) leiden 2% aller Kinder an Asthma. Andere Untersuchungen, die jedoch retrospektiver Art waren, geben eine Asthmainzidenzrate von 5–10% bei Kindern unter 2 Jahren an (Williams u. McNicol 1969; Dees 1969). Nach einer Zusammenstellung von Gregg (1977) variieren die Zahlen in der Literatur auch aufgrund regionaler und sozioökologischer Gegebenheiten in den einzelnen Ländern, in denen die Studien durchgeführt wurden. So werden für Skandinavien Inzidenz-raten zwischen 0,5 und 2%, für Großbritanien und für die Vereinigten Staaten zwischen 1,5 und 5,1% und für Australien sogar zwischen 5,4 und 7,4% angegeben. In einer Longitudinalstudie aus dem Jahre 1978, in der alle 17000 Kinder einbezogen wurden, die innerhalb 1 Woche im März des Jahres 1958 in England, Wales und Schottland geboren worden waren (Peckham u. Butler 1978), waren nach Angaben der Eltern, der Lehrer und nach den bei einer Schuluntersuchung erhobenen Daten bei 3,5% der Kinder im Alter von 11 Jahren die Kriterien für ein Asthma gegeben. Bei 8,8% bestanden zum gleichen Befragungs- und Untersuchungszeitpunkt in der Anamnese Hinweise für rezidivierende obstruktive Bronchitiden in der frühen Kindheit.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literatur

  1. Agosti JM, Sprenger JD, Lum LG, Witherspoon P, Fisher LD, Storb R, Henderson WR (1988) Transfer of allergen specific IgE-mediated hypersensitivity with allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. N Engl J Med 319: 1623PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amelung PJ, Panhuysen CIM, Postma DS, Levitt RC, Koeter GH, Francomano CA, Bleecker ER, Meyers DA (1992) Atopy and bronchial hyperresponsiveness: exclusion of linkage to markers on chromosome 11q and 6p. Clin Exp Alleray 22: 1077CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson HR, Bailey PA, Cooper JS, Palmer JC (1981) Influence of morbidity, illness label, and social, family, and health service factors on drug treatment of childhood asthma. Lancet VII: 1030CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arrighi HM (1995) US asthma mortality: 1941 to 1989. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 74: 321PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Barr LW, Logan GB (1964) Prognosis of children having asthma. Pediatrics 34: 856PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bazaral M, Orgel H, Hamburger RN (1971) IgE levels in normal infants and mothers and an inheritance hypothesis. J Immunol 107: 794PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bazaral M, Orgel H, Hamburger R (1974) Genetics of IgE and allergy: serum IgE levels in twins. J Allergy Clin Immunol 54: 288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Berquist WE, Rachelefsky GS, Kadden M, Siegel SC, Katz RM, Fonkalsrud EM, Ament ME (1981) Gastroesophageal reflux-associated recurrent pneumonia and chronic asthma in children. Pediatrics 68: 29PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Björksten B, Finnström O, Wichman K (1988) Intrauterine exposure to beta-adrenergic receptor-blocking agent metropolol and allergy. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 87: 59PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Blair H (1977) Natural history of childhood asthma: 20 years follow-up. Arch Dis Child 52: 613PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Blumenthal M, Mendell N, Yunis E (1980) Immunogenetics of atopic disease. J Allergy Clin Immunol 65: 403PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Blumenthal M, Yunis E, Mendell N, Elston RC (1988) Preventive allergy: genetics of IgE-mediated diseases. J Allergy Clin Immunol 78: 962CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bousquet J, Menardo JL, Robinet-Levy M, Michel FB (1983) Möglichkeiten der Vorhersage allergischer Erkrankungen im Säuglingsalter. In: Wahn U (Hrsg) Aktuelle Probleme der päd. Allergologie. Fischer, Stuttgart New York, S 53Google Scholar
  14. Buffum WP, Settipane GA (1966) Prognosis of asthma in childhood. Am J Dis Child 112: 214PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Burney PG, Chinn S, Rona RJ (1990) Has the prevalence of asthma increased in children? Evidence from the national study of health and growth 1973–1986. Br Med J 300: 1306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Burr ML, Buthand BK, King S, Vaughn-Williams E (1989) Changes in asthma prevalence: two surveys 15 years apart. Arch Dis Child 64: 1452PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Businco L, Dreborg S, Einarsson R, Giampietro PG, Host A, Keller KM, Strobel S, Wahn U (1993) Hydrolysed cow’s milk fomulae, allergenity and use in treatment and prevention. An ESPA-CI position paper. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 4: 101PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Butler M, Chan SC, Stevens S, Hanifin JM (1983) Increased leukocyte histamine release with elevated cyclic AMP-phosphodiesterase activity in atopic dermatitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 71: 490PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Caraballo LR, Hernandez M (1990) HLA hapiotype segregation in families with allergic asthma. Tissue Antigens 35: 182PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chan SC, Grewe SC, Stevens SR, Hanifin SM (1982) Functional desensitization due to stimulation of cyclic AMP-phosphodiesterase in human mononuclear leukocytes. J Cyclic Nucleotide Res 8: 211PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Chandra RK (1995) Formulas in the prevention of allergic disease. In: Weck AL de, Sampson (eds) Intestinal immunology and food allergy. Raven Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  22. Chandra RK, Baker M (1983) Numerical and functional deficiencies of suppressor T cells precedes development of atopic eczema. Lancet 2: 1393PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Chandra RK, Hamed A (1991) Cumulative incidence of atopic disorders in high risk infants fed whey hydrolysate, soy, and conventional cow’s milk formula. Ann Allergy 67: 129PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Chandra RK (1992) Influence of maternal diet during lactation and use of formula feeds on development of atopic eczema in high risk infants. Br Med J 299: 228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Conrad DH (1990) Fc epsilon RII/CD23: the low affinity receptor for IgE. Annu Rev Immunol 8: 623PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cookson WOCM, Hopkin JM (1988) Dominant inheritance of atopic immunogobulin E responsiveness. Lancet 1: 86PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cookson WOCM, Sharp PA, Faux JA, Hopkin JM (1989) Linkage between immunoglobulin E response underlying asthma and rhinitis and chromosome 11q. Lancet 8650: 1292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Cookson WOCM, Young RP, Sandford AJ, Moffat MF, Shirakawa T, Sharp PA, Faux JA, Julier C, Le Souef PN, Nakumura Y, Lathrop GM, Hopkin JM (1992) Maternal inheritance of atopic IgE Responsiveness on chromosome 11q. Lancet 340: 381PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Croner S, Kjellman N-IM, Eriksson B, Roth A (1982) IgE screening in 1701 newborn infants and the development of atopic disease during infancy. Arch Dis Child 57: 364PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Croner S, Kjellman N-IM (1990) Development of atopic disease in relation to family history and cord blood IgE level. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 1: 14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Crowley S, Hindmarsh PC, Matthews DR, Brook CGD (1995) Growth and growth hormone axis in prepubertal children with asthma. J Pediatr 126: 297PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Dees SC (1969) Asthma in infants and young children. Br Med J IV: 321Google Scholar
  33. Dubo S, McLean JA, Ching AYT, Wright HL, Kauffman PE, Sheldon JM (1961) A study of relationships between family situation, bronchial asthma, and personal adjustment in children. J Pediatr 59: 402PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Edfors-Lubs ML (1971) Allergy in 7000 twin pairs. Acta Allergol 26: 249PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Eigen H (1982) The clinical evaluation of chronic cough. Pediatr Clin North Am 29: 67PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Empey DW, Laitinen LA, Jakobs L, Gold WM, Nadel NA (1976) Mechanisms of bronchial hyperreactivity in normal subjects after upper respiratory tract infection. Am Rev Respir Dis 113: 13Google Scholar
  37. Ferguson AC, Murray AB, Tze WJ (1982) Short-stature and delayed skeletal maturation in children with allergy disease. J Allergy Clin Immunol 69: 461PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Fischer B, Schmutzler W (1982) Quantitative Methoden der Allergologie. IL Bestimmung von Immunmodulatoren (Biological response modifiers) RABS-Referenz Allergen Bioassay. Standardisierung von Allergenextrakten-Prinzipien und Ausführung. Allergologie 5: 303Google Scholar
  39. Foucard T, Sjöberg (1984) A prospective 12-year-fellov-up study of children with wheezy bronchitis. Acta Paediatr Scand 73: 6577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Frick OL, German DF, Mills J (1979) Development of allergy in children. I. Association with virus infection. J Allergy Clin Immunol 63: 228PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gregg J (1977) Epidemiology. In: Clark TJH, Godfrey S (eds) Asthma. Chapman & Hall, London, p 214Google Scholar
  42. Geller-Bernstein G, Kenett R, Weisglass T, Tsur S, Lahar M, Levin S (1987) Atopic babies with wheezy bronchitis. Allergy 42: 85PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gergen PJ, Weiss KB (1990) Changing patterns of asthma, Hospitalization among children. JAMA 264: 1688PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Gergen PJ, Turkeltaub PC, Kremer RA (1992) Age of onset in childhood asthma; data from a national cohart study. Ann Allergy 68: 507PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Gerritsen J, Koeter GH, Postma DS, Schouten JP (1989) Prognosis of asthma from children to adulthood. Am Rev Respir Dis 140: 1325PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Grewe SR, Chan SC, Hanifin JM (1982) Elevated leukocyte cyclic AMP-phosphodiesterase in atopic disease: a possible mechanism for cAMP-agonist hyporesponsiveness. J Allergy Clin Immunol 70: 452PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hasstedt SJ, Meyers DA, Marsh DG (1983) Inheritance of immunoglobulin E: genetic model fitting. Am J Genet 14: 61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hattevig G, Kjellman B, Sigurs N, Björksten B, Kjellman N-IM (1989) Effect of maternal avoidance of eggs, cow’s milk and fish during lactation upon allergic manifestations in infants. Clin Exp Allergy 19: 27PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hattevig G, Kjellman B, Sigurs N, Grodzinsky E, Hed J, Björksten B (1990) The effect of maternal avoidance of eggs, cow’s milk and fish during lactation on the development of IgE, IgG and IgA antibodies in infants. J Allergy in Clin Immunol 85: 108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hattevig G, Björkstein B (1993) Environmental factors in the development of asthma. In: Schatz M, Zeiger RS (eds) Asthma and Allergy in pregnancy and early infancy. Marcel Dekker, New York Basel Hongkong, p 395Google Scholar
  51. Hauspie R, Susanne C, Alexander F (1977) Maturational delay and temporal growth retardation in asthmatic boys. Pediatrics 59: 200Google Scholar
  52. Heskel NS, Chan SC, Thiel ML, Stevens SR, Casperson LS, Hanifin JM (1984) Elevated umbilical cord blood leucocyte cyclic adenosin monophosphate-phosphodiesterase activity in children with atopic parents. J Am Acad Dermatol 11: 422PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Higenbottam T, Varma N (1989) Asthma: an inherited dysfunction of bone marrow cells? Eur Resp J 2: 921Google Scholar
  54. Hizawa N, Yamaguchi E, Ohe M, Itoh A, Furuya K, Ohnuma N, Kawakami X (1992) Lack of linkage between atopy and locus 11q13. Clin Exp Allergy 22: 1065PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hogg JC (1981) Bronchial mucosal permeability and its relationship to airways hyperreactivity. J Allergy Clin Immunol 67: 421PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hogg JC, Williams J, Richardsen JB, Macklem PT, Thurlbeck WM (1970) Age as a factor in the distribution of lower-airway conductance and in the pathologic anatomy of obstructive lung disease. N Engl J Med 282: 1283PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Holt PG, McMenanim C, Nelson D (1990) Primary sensitization to inhalant allergen during infancy. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 1: 3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Hopkin JM (1989) Genetics of atopy. Clin Exp Allergy 19: 263PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Hopp RJ, Bewtra AK, Watt GD, Nair NM, Townley RG (1984) Genetic analysis of allergic disease in twins. J Allergy Clin Immunol 73: 265PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Huang S-K, Yi M, Kumai M, Marsh DG (1994) Immunogenetic aspects of IgE-mediated responses. In: Atassi MZ (ed.) Immunobiology of proteins and peptides VII. Plenum Press, New York, p 11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Ida S, Hooks JJ, Siraganian RP, Notkins AL (1977) Enhancement of IgE-mediated histamine release from human basophils by viruses: Role of interferon. J Exp Med 145: 892PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Kelly LOY, Hudson M, Raven J, Phelan PD, Pain MCF, Olinsky A (1988) Childhood asthma and adult lung function. Am Rev Respir Dis 138: 26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Kimpen J, Callaert H, Embrechts P, Bossmanns E (1989) Influence of sex and gestational age on cord blood IgE. Acta Paediatr Scand 78: 233PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kjellman N-JM (1977) Atopic disease in 7-year old children. Incidence in relation to family history. Acta Paediatr Scand 66: 465PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Kjellman N-IM (1983) Development and prediction of atopic allergy in childhood. In: Theoretical and clinical aspects of allergic disease. Almqvist & Wiksell Stockholm, S 52Google Scholar
  66. Kjellman N-IM, Croner S (1984) Cord blood IgE determination for allergy prediction: a follow-up to seven years of age in 1651 children. Ann Allergy 53: 167PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. König P, Godfrey S (1973) Prevalence of exercise induced bronchial lability in families of children with asthma. Arch Dis Child 48: 513PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. König P, Godfrey S (1974) Exercise induced bronchial lability in monozygotic (identical) and dizygotic (non-identical) twins. J Allergy Clin Immunol 54: 280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Koletzko B, Schmidt E (1991) Nutritional and dietetic aspects of food allergy and food intolerance in childhood. In: Müller JC, Ockhuizen Th (eds) Food Allergy and food intolerance Somogy. Biol Nutr Dieta 48: 116Google Scholar
  70. Kuzemko JA (1980) Natural history of childhood asthma. J Pediatr 97: 886PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Lang DM, Polansky M (1994) Patterns of asthma mortality in Philadelphia from 1963 to 1991. N Engl J Med 331: 1542PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Lans DM, Rocklin RE (1989) Dysregulation of arachidonic acid release and metabolism by atopic mononuciear cells. Clin Exp Allergy 19: 37PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Leigh G, Marley E (1967) Bronchial asthma. A genetic populations and psychiatric study. Pergamon, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  74. Leung DYM, Bhan AK, Schneeberg EE, Geha RS (1983) Characterization of the mononuclear cell infiltrate in atopic dermatitis using monoclonal antibodies. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 71: 47PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Li JT, O’Connell EF (1987) Viral infections and asthma. Ann Allergy 59: 321PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Lindfors A, Wickman M, Hedin G, Pershagen G, Rietz H, Nordvall SL (1995) Indoor environmental risk factors in young asthmatics: a case-control study. Arch Dis Child 73: 408PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Lubs ML (1971) Allergy in 7000 twin pairs. Acta Allergol 26: 249Google Scholar
  78. Lubs ML (1972) Empiric risks for genetic counseling in families with allergy. J Pediatr 80: 26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Luyt DK, Burton P, Brooke AM, Simpson H (1994) Wheeze in preschool children and its relation with doctor diagnosed asthma. Arch Dis Child 71: 24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Lympany P, Welsh KI, Cochrane GM, Kemeny DM, Lee TH (1992a) Genetic analysis of the linkage between chromosome 11q and atopy. Clin Exp Allergy 22: 1085PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Lympany P, Welsh K, MacCochrane G, Kemeny DM, Lee TH (1992b) Genetic analysis using DNA polymorphism of the linkage between chromosome 11q13 and atopy and bronchial hyperre-sponsiveness to metacholine. J Allergy Clin Immunol 89: 619PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Magnusson CGM (1986) Maternal smoking influences cord serum IgE and IgD levels and increases the risk for subsequent infant allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 78: 898PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Marks GB, Tovey ER, Toelle BG, Appl B, Wachinger S, Peat JK, Woolcock AJ (1995) Mite allergen (Der p 1) concentration in houses and its relation to the presence and severity of asthma in a population of Sydney school children. J Allergy Clin Immunol 96: 441PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Marsh DG, Hsu SH, Hussain R, Meyers DA, Freidhoff LR, Bias WB (1980) Genetics of human immune response to allergens. J Allergy Clin Immunol 65: 322PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Marsh DG, Meyers DA, Bias WB (1981) The epidemiology and genetics of atopic allergy. N Engl J Med 305: 1551PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Marsh DG, Neeley JD, Breazeale DR, Ghosh B, Freidhoff LR, Ehrlich-Kautzky E, Schou C, Krishnaswamy G, Beaty TH (1994) Linkage analysis of 114 and other chromosome 5q31.1 markers and total serum immunoglobulin E concentrations. Science 264: 1152PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Marsh DG (1990) Immunogenetic and immunochemical factors determining immune responsiveness to allergens: studies in unrelated subjects. In: Marsh DG, Blumenthal EN (eds) Genetic and Environmental Factors in Clinical Allergy. University of Minesota Press, Minneapolis, p 97Google Scholar
  88. Martin AJ, McLennan LA, Landau LI, Phelan PD (1980) The natural history of childhood asthma to adult life. Brit Med J XIV: 1397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Martinez FD, Antognoni G, Macri F, Bonci E, Midulla F, DeCastro G, Ronchetti R (1988) Parenteral smoking enhances bronchial responsiveness in nine-year-old children. Am Rev Respir Dis 138: 518PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Martinez FD, Wright AL, Taussig LM, Holberg CJ, Halonen M, Morgan WJ (1995) Asthma and wheezing in the first six years of life. N Engl J Med 332: 133PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Matsumoto T, Miike T, Takahashi H, Hosoda M, Kawabe T, Yodoi J, Hirashima M (1990) Fc-epsilon Rll on T cells and IgE binding factors in children with atopic asthma. Pediatr. Allergy Immunol 1: 21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Mazon A, Nieto A, Javier Nieto F, Menendez R, Boquete M, Brines J (1994) Prognostic factors in childhood asthma: a logistic regression analysis. Ann Allergy 72: 455PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Mcintosh K, Ellis EF, Hoffmann LS, Lybass TG, Eller JJ, Fulginiti VA (1973) The association of viral and bacterial respiratory infections with exacerbations of wheezing in young asthmatic children. J Pediatr 82: 578PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. McMillan JC, Heskel NS, Hanifin JM (1985) Cyclic AMP-phosphodiesterase activity and histamine release in cord blood leukocyte preparations. Acta Derm Venerol 114 Suppl: 24Google Scholar
  95. McNicol KN, Williams HB (1973) Spectrum of asthmatic in children. I. Clinical and physiological components. Br Med J IV: 7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Michel FB, Bousquet J, Greillier P, Robinet-Levy M, Coulomb Y (1980) Comparison of cord blood immunoglobulin E concentrations and maternal allergy for the prediction of atopic disease in infancy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 65: 422PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Miller DL, Hirvonen T, Gitlin D (1973) Synthesis of IgE by human conceptus. J Allergy Clin Immunol 52: 182PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Mitchell RG, Dawson B (1973) Educational and social characteristics of children with asthma. Arch Dis Child 48: 467PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Möller KL (1955) The prognosis of bronchitis asthmatoides during in first year of life. Acta Paediatr Scand 44: 399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Moffat MF, Sharp PA, Faux JA, Young RP, Cookson WOCM, Hopkin JM (1992) Factors confounding genetic linkage between atopy and chromosome 11q. Clin Exp Allergy 22: 1046CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Mutius E von, Dold S, Wijst M, Stiepel E, Reitmeier P, Frenztel-Beyme-Baur R, Hillebrecht A, Nicolai T, Lehnmacher W, Löffelholz-Colberg E v, Adam D (1991) Münchener Asthma- und Allergiestudie. Prävalenzen atopischer und asthmatischer Erkrankungen im Kindesalter in Bayern. Münch Med Wschr 133: 675Google Scholar
  102. Mutius E von, Martinez FD, Fritzsch C, Nicolai T, Reitmeir P, Thiemann HH (1994a) Skin test reactivity and number of siblings. Br Med J 308: 692CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Mutius E von, Martinez FD, Fritzsch C, Nicolai T, Roell G, Thiemann HH (1994b) Prevalence of asthma and atopy in two areas of West and East Germany. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 149: 358Google Scholar
  104. Neuhaus EC (1958) A personality study of asthmatic and cardiac children. Psychosom Med 20: 181PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Ninan TK, Russel G (1992) Asthma, inhaled corticosteroid treatment and growth. 67: 703Google Scholar
  106. Ownby DR, Johnson CC, Peterson EL (1991) Maternal smoking does not influence cord serum IgE or IgD concentrations. J Allergy Clin Immunol 88: 555PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Orgel HA, Hamburger RN, Bazaral M, Gorrin H, Groshong T, Lenoir M, Miller JR, Wallace W (1975) Development of IgE and allergy in infancy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 56: 296PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Pauwels R, Straeten M van der, Weyne J, Bazin H (1985) Genetic factors in non-specific bronchial reactivity in rats. Eur J Respir Dis 66: 98PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Pearce N, Weiland S, Keic U, Longridge P, Anderson HR, Strachow D, Baumann A, Young L, Gluyas P, Ruffin D, Crene J, Beasley R (1993) Self-reported prevalence of asthma in children in Australia, England, Germany and New Zealand: An international comparison using the JAAC protocol. Eur Respir J 6: 1455PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Peckham C, Butler N (1978) A national study of asthma in childhood. J Epidemiol Community Health 32: 79PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Platts-Mills TAE, Sporik RB, Wheatley LM, Heyman PW (1995) Is there a dose-response relationship between exposure to indoor allergens and symptoms of asthma? J Allergy Clin Immunol 96: 435PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Propping P, Voigtländer V (1983) Was ist gesichert in der Genetik der Atopien? Allergologie 293: 257Google Scholar
  113. Pullan CR, Hey EN (1981) 10-years follow-up of respiratory syncytial virus chest infection in infancy. Prog Respir Res 17: 252Google Scholar
  114. Rackeman FM, Edwards MC (1952) Asthma in children: A follow-up study 688 patients after an interval of twenty years. N Engl J Med 246: 814Google Scholar
  115. Rantakallio P (1978) Relationship of maternal smoking to morbidity and mortality of the child up to age five. Acta Paediatr Scand 67: 621PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Reid L (1977) Influence of the pattern of structural growth of lung on susceptibility to specific infectious diseases in infants and children. Pediatr Res 11: 210PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Reimer LG, Morris HG, Ellis EF (1975) Growth of asthmatic children during treatment with alternate — day steroids. J Allergy Clin Immunol 55: 224PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Rich SS, Roltman-Johnson B, Greenberg B, Roberts S, Blumenthal MN (1992) Genetic analysis of atopy in three large kindreds: no evidence of linkage to D11S97. Clin Exp Allergy 22: 1070PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Russel G (1993) Asthma and growth. Arch Dis Child 89: 695CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Saarinen UM (1984) Transfer of latent atopy by bone marrow transplantation: a case report. J Allergy Clin Immunol 74: 196PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Saarinen UM, Kajosaari M, Backman A, Siimes M (1979) Prolonged breast-feeding as prophylaxis for atopic disease. Lancet 2: 163PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Saarinen UM, Kajosaari M (1995) Breast feading as prophylaxis against atopic disease: prospective follow-up study until 17 years old. Lancet 346: 1065PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Sandford AJ, Shirakawa T, Moffat MF, Daniels SE, Ra C, Faux JA, Young RP, Nakumura Y, Lathrop GM, Cookson WOCM, Hopkin JM (1993) Localisation of atopy and β subunit of high-affinity IgE receptor (Fc~RI) on chromosome 11q. Lancet 341: 332PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Salob SP, Atherton DJ (1993) Prevalence of respiratory symptoms in children with atopic attending pediatric dermatology clinics. Pediatrics 91: 8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Saurat JH (1985) Eczema in primary immune-deficiencies. Acta Derm Venerol 114: 125Google Scholar
  126. Schnyder UW (1972) Zur Humangenetik der Neurodermitis atopica. Arch Dermatol Forsch 244: 347PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Schwartz J, Gold D, Dockery DW, Weiss ST, Speizer FE (1990) Predictors of asthma and persistent wheeze in a national sample of children in United States. Am Rev Respir Dis 142: 555PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Shaw RA, Crane J, O’Donnell TV, Porteous LE, Coleman ED (1988) Increasing asthma in a rural New Zealand adolescent population 1975–1989. Arch Dis Child 65: 1319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Shirakawa T, Li A, Dubowitz M, Dekker JW, Shaw AE, Faux JA, Ra C, Cookson WOCM, Hopkin JM (1994) Association between atopy and variants of the BBB subunit of the high affinity immunoglobulin E receptor. Nature Genet 7: 125Google Scholar
  130. Sibbald B, Horn MEC, Brain EA, Gregg I (1980) Genetic factors in childhood asthma. Thorax 35: 671PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Siegel SC, Katz RM, Rachelefsky Gs (1983) Asthma in infancy and childhood. In: Middleton E, Reed CE, Ellis EF (eds) Allergy, principles and practice. Mosby, St Louis Toronto, p 863Google Scholar
  132. Silverstein MD, Reed CE, O’Connell E, Melton LJ, O’Follon WM, Yunginger JW (1994) Long term survival of a cohort of community residents with asthma. N Engl J Med 331: 1537PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Skoner D, Caliguiri L (1988) The wheezing infant. Pediatr Clin North Am 35: 1011PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Sly RM (1984) Increases in deaths from asthma. Ann Allergy 53: 20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Sly RM (1993) Increases in asthma morbidity and mortality. In: Tinkelman DG, Naspitz CK (eds) Childhood asthma. Marcel Dekker, New York Basel Hongkong, p 195Google Scholar
  136. Smith JM (1993) Epidemiology and natural history of asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis. In: Middleton E, Reed CE, Ellis FE, Adkinson NF, Yunginger JW (eds) Allergy, Principles and practice. Mosby, St Louis Washington Toronto, p 1109Google Scholar
  137. Speizer FE, Doll R (1968) A century of asthma deaths in young people. Br Med J 3: 245PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Sporik R, Holgate ST, Platts-Mills TAE, Cogswell JJ (1990) Exposure to house dust mite allergen and the development of asthma in childhood. A prospective study. N Engl J Med 323: 502PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Staudenmayer H (1981) Parental anxiety and other psychosocial factors associated with childhood asthma. J Chronic Dis 34: 627PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Stolley PD (1972) Asthma mortality. Why the United States was spared an epidemic of deaths due to asthma. Am Rev Respir Dis 105: 883PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Strachan DP, Anderson HR, Limb ES, O’Neill A, Wells N (1990) A national survey of asthma, prevalence, severity, and treatment in Great Britain. Arch Dis Child 70: 171Google Scholar
  142. Strannegard I-L, Strannegard Ö (1981) The T cell deficiency in atopic disease and its relation to hyperproduction of IgE. Acta Derm Venerol 95 Suppl: 20Google Scholar
  143. Strannegard I-L, Svennerholm L, Strannegard Ö (1987) Essential fatty acids in serum lecithin of children with atopic dermatitis and in umbilical cord serum of infants with high or low IgE levels. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 82: 422PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Svartengren M, Ericsson CH, Mossberg B, Camner P (1990) Bronchial reactivity and atopy in asthma discordant monozygotic twins. Ann Allergy 64: 124PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Tabachnik E, Levison H (1981) Infantile bronchial asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 67: 339PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Timonen T, Stenius-Aarnala B (1985) Natural killer cell activity in asthma. Clin Exp Immunol 59: 85PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Townley RG, Hopp RJ, Bewtra AK, Nair NM (1990) Predictive value of airway reactivity. J Allergy Clin Immunol 86: 650PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Trask DM, Chan SC, Sherman SE, Hanifin JM (1988) Altered leukocyte activity in atopic dermatitis. J Invest Dermatol 90: 526PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Twiesselmann F (1969) Development biometrique de l’enfant à l’adult. Presses universitaire de Bruxelles, Librairie MaloineGoogle Scholar
  150. Vandenplas Y, Hauser B, Borre C van den, Sacre L, Dab J (1992) Effect of whey hydrolysate prophylaxis on atopic disease. Ann Allergy 68: 419PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Vandenplas Y, Hauser B, Borre C van den et al. (1995) The long-term effect of partial hydrolysate formula on the prophylaxis of the atopic disease. Eur J Pediatr 154: 488PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Vassella CC, Odelram H, Kjellman NI, Borres MP, Vanto T, Björksten B (1994) High anti-IgE levels at birth are associated with a reduced allergy prevalence in infants at risk. A prospective study. Clin exp Allergy 24: 771PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Voigtländer V (1977) Genetik der Neurodermitis. Z Hautkr 52: 65PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Weck A de, Blumenthal M, Yunis E, Jeannet M (1977) HLA and allergy. In: Dausset J, Svejgaard, A (eds) HLA and disease. Williams & Wilkins Baltimore, p 196Google Scholar
  155. Weiss S (1995) Long-term outcome in early childhood asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 151: 6Google Scholar
  156. Weiss ST, Gold DR (1995) Fender differences in asthma. Pediatr Pulmonol 19: 153PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Weiss KB, Wagener DK (1990) Changing, patterns of asthma mortality. Identifying target populations at risk. JAMA 264: 1683PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Welliver RC, Kaul TN, Ogra PL (1980) The appearance of cell bound IgE in respiratory tract epithelium after respiratory-syncytial-virus infection. N Engl J Med 303: 1198PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Weitzman M, Gortmaker S, Sobol MA (1990) Racial, social, and environmental risks for childhood asthma. AJDC 144: 1189PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. WHO (Regional Office for Europe) (1974) Long-term program in environmental pollution control in Europe. Chronic respiratory disease in children in relation to air pollution. WHO, CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  161. Williams H. McNicol (1969) Prevalence, natural history, and relationship of wheezy bronchitis and asthma in children. An epidemiological study. Br Med J IV: 321Google Scholar
  162. Wittig HJ, McLaughlin ET, Leifer KL, Belloit JD (1978) Risk factors for the development of allergic disease: analysis of 2,190 patient records. Ann Allergy 41: 84PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Yanagihara Y, Sarfati M, Marsh D, Nutman T, Delespesse G (1990) Serum levels of IgE-binding factor (soluble CD23) in diseases associated with elevated IgE. Clin Exp Allergy 20: 395PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Young S, O’Keeffe PTO, Arnott J, Landau LI (1995) Lung function, airway responsiveness, and respiratory symptoms before and after bronchiolitis. Arch Dis Child 72: 16PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Zeiger RS, Heller S, Mellon MH, Forsythe AB, O’Connor RD, Hamburger RN, Schatz M (1989) Effect of combined maternal and infant food-allergen avoidance on development of atopy in early infancy: a randomized study. J Allergy Clin Immunol 84: 72PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Zeiger RS (1990) Prevention of food allergy in infancy. Ann Allergy 65: 430PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Zeiger RS, Heller S (1995) The development and prediction of atopy in high risk children: Follow up at age seven years in a prospective randomized study of combined maternal and infant food allergen avoidance. J Allergy Clin Immunol 95: 1179PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dietrich Reinhardt
    • 1
  1. 1.KinderpoliklinikLudwig-Maximilians-UniversitätMünchenDeutschland

Personalised recommendations