Hyperhidrosis und Schweißdrüsenerkrankungen

  • Constantin E. Orfanos
  • Claus Garbe

Zusammenfassung

Mit ca. 2–5 Mio. ekkrinen Schweißdrüsen am gesamten Integument sind diese Drüsenstrukturen die häufigsten Drüsen der menschlichen Haut. Ihre Dichte schwankt zwischen ca. 60 Drüsen/cm 2 am Rücken und 600–700/cm 2 an Handflächen und Fußsohlen: Ekkrine Schweißdrüsen finden sich an der gesamten Körperoberfläche einschließlich der Glans penis und der Vorhaut, aber nicht an den Lippen, dem äußeren Gehörgang, der Klitoris oder den Labia minora. So ausgedehnt kommen ekkrine Schweißdrüsen nur beim Menschen vor, bei anderen Säugetieren finden sie sich vornehmlich auf die Pfoten beschränkt, und lediglich bei Primaten sind sie in wechselnder Ausprägung am übrigen Integument vorhanden. Während die ekkrinen Schweißdrüsen einen direkten Ausführungsgang zur Oberfläche der Epidermis besitzen, mündet der Ausführungsgang der phylogenetisch älteren apokrinen Schweißdrüsen in das supraseboglanduläre Infundibulum der Haarfollikel. Apokrine Schweißdrüsen kommen daher beim Menschen auch nur an den behaarten Körperarealen vor, den Axillae, der Genitoanalregion, periumbilikal und perimamillär sowie im Gesicht und am Kapillitium.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literatur

  1. Baser SM, Meer J, Polinsky RJ, Hallett M (1991) Sudo-motor function in autonomic failure. Neurology 41: 1564–1566PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Hölzle E (1983) Pathophysiologische Aspekte and klinische Erscheinungsbilder der Hyperhidrosis. Hautarzt 34: 596–604PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Quinton PM (1983) Sweating and its disorders. Ann Rev Med 34: 429–452PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Sato K, Kang WH, Saga K, Sato KT (1989) Biology of sweat glands and their disorders. I. Normal sweat gland function. J Am Acad Dermatol 20: 537–563PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Sato K, Kang WH, Saga K, Sato KT (1989) Biology of sweat glands and their disorders. II. Disorders of sweat gland-function. J Am Acad Dermatol 20: 713–726PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Schiavone A, Brambilla A (1991) Muscarinic M3 receptors mediate secretion from sweat glands in the rat. Pharmacol Res 23: 233–239PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Blecher SR, Kapalanga J, Lalonde D (1990) Induction of sweat glands by epidermal growth factor in murine X-linked anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia. Nature 345: 542–544PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Clark RP, Goff MR, MacDermot KD (1990) Identification of functioning sweat pores and visualization of skin temperature patterns in X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia by whole body thermography. Hum Genet 86: 7–13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Dittmer A, Erler T, Gurski A, Muller P (1992) Hypohidrotische ektodermale Dysplasie als Ursache rezidivierender Hyperthermie bei einem jungen Säugling. Kinderärztl Prax 60: 239–242PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Fealey RD, Low PA, Thomas JE (1989) Thermoregulatory sweating abnormalities in diabetes mellitus. Mayo Clin Proc 64: 617–628PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Hatzis J, Gourgiotou K, Koumelas D et al. (1992) Congenital sensory neuropathy with anhidrosis (hereditary sensory neuropathy type IV). Australas J Dermatol 33: 103–107PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Herges A, Stieler W, Stadler R (1993) Das BazexDupré-Christol-Syndrom. Follikuläre Atrophodermie, multiple Basaliome und Hypotrichose. Hautarzt 44: 385–391PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Itin P, Hirsbrunner P, Rufli T et al. (1992) Das Ross-Syndrom. Hautarzt 43: 359–360PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Kang WH, Chun SI, Lee S (1987) Generalized anhidrosis associated with Fabry’s disease. J Am Acad Dermatol 17: 883–887PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Kere J, Grzeschik KH, Limon J et al. (1993) Anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia gene region cloned in yeast artificial chromosomes. Genomics 16: 305–310PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Korpelainen JT, Sotaniemi KA, Myllyla VV (1993) Ipsilateral hypohidrosis in brain stem infarction. Stroke 24: 100–104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Mitchell J, Greenspan J, Daniels T et al. (1987) Anhidrosis (hypohidrosis) in Sjögren’s syndrome. J Am Acad Dermatol 16: 233–235PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Ozbarlas N, Sarikayalar F, Kale G (1993) Congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis. Cutis 51: 373–374PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Plantin P, Gavanou J, Jouan N et al. (1992) Peau collodionnée: un aspect clinique méconnu mais fréquent des dysplasies ectodermiques anhidrotiques en période neonatale. Ann Dermatol Venereol 119: 821–823PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Reinauer S, Schauf G, Hölzle E (1993) Ross syndrome: treatment of segmental compensatory hyperhidrosis by a modified iontophoretic device. J Am Acad Dermatol 28: 308–312PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Weller M, Wilhelm H, Sommer N et al. (1992) Tonic pupil, areflexia, and segmental anhidrosis: two additional cases of Ross syndrome and review of the literature. J Neurol 239: 231–234PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Zonana J (1993) Hypohidrotic (anhidrotic) ectodermal dysplasia: molecular genetic research and its clinical applications. Semin Dermatol 12: 241–246PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Andersen LS, Biering Sorensen F et al. (1992) The prevalence of hyperhidrosis in patients with spinal cord injuries and an evaluation of the effect of dextropropoxyphene hydrochloride in therapy. Paraplegia 30: 184–191PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Feinstein A, Friedman J, Schewach Millet M (1988) Pachyonychia congenita. J Am Acad Dermatol 19: 705–711PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Harper KE, Spielvogel RL (1986) Frey’s syndrome. Int J Dermatol 25: 524–526PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Hölzle E (1983) Pathophysiologische Aspekte und klinische Erscheinungsbilder der Hyperhidrosis. Hautarzt 34: 596–604PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Hölzle E (1984) Therapie der Hyperhidrosis. Hautarzt 35: 7–15Google Scholar
  28. Korpelainen JT, Sotaniemi KA, Myllyla VV (1992) Hyperhidrosis as a reflection of autonomic failure in patients with acute hemispheral brain infarction. An evaporimetric study. Stroke 23: 1271–1275PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Leeman CP (1990) Pathophysiology of tricyclic-in-duced sweating. J Clin Psychiatry 51: 258–259PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Posteraro AF (1992) Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome. J Ala Dent Assoc 76: 16–19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Rufli T, Itin P, Gilli L (1992) Localized unilateral hyperhidrosis. Dermatology 184: 298–299PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Sato K (1991) Hyperhidrosis. JAMA 265: 651Google Scholar
  33. Sato K, Kang WH, Saga K, Sato KT (1989) Biology of sweat glands and their disorders. I. Normal sweat gland function. J Am Acad Dermatol 20: 537–563PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Sato K, Kang WH, Saga K, Sato KT (1989) Biology of sweat glands and their disorders. II. Disorders of sweat gland function. J Am Acad Dermatol 20: 713–726PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Sato K, Ohtsuyama M, Samman G (1991) Eccrine sweat gland disorders. J Am Acad Dermatol 24: 1010–1014PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Su WP, Chun SI, Hammond DE, Gordon H (1990) Pachyonychia congenita: a clinical study of 12 cases and review of the literature. Pediatr Dermatol 7: 33–38PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Akins DL, Meisenheimer JL, Dobson RL (1987) Efficacy of the Drionic unit in the treatment of hyperhidrosis. J Am Acad Dermatol 16: 828–832PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Bisbal J, del Cacho C, Casalots J (1987) Surgical treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis. Ann Plast Surg 18: 429–436PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Bogokowsky H, Slutzki S, Bacalu L et al. (1983) Surgical treatment of primary hyperhidrosis. A report of 42 cases. Arch Surg 118: 1065–1067PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Byrne J, Walsh TN, Hederman WP (1990) Endoscopie transthoracic electrocautery of the sympathetic chain for palmar and axillary hyperhidrosis. Br J Surg 77: 1046–1049PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Chao C, Tsai CT, Hsiao HC et al. (1993) Transaxillary endoscopie sympathectomy — a report of experience in 150 patients with palmar hyperhidrosis. Surg Lapa-rose Endosc 3: 365–369Google Scholar
  42. Chester JF, Jeddy TA, Taylor RS et al. (1992) Efficacy of endoscopie transthoracic sympathectomy assessed by peroperative palmar temperature measurement. Br J Surg 79: 752PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Chou SH, Lee SH, Kao EL (1993) Thoracic endoscopie T2–T3 sympathectomy in palmar hyperhidrosis: experience of 112 cases. Surg Today 23: 105–107PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Claes G, Drott C, Gothberg G (1993) Endoscopie electrocautery of the thoracic sympathetic chain. A minimally invasive way to treat palmar hyperhidrosis. Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg Hand Surg 27: 29–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Conrad F, Baumgartner H, Wiedermann C, Klein G (1983) Clonidine and hyperhidrosis. Ann Intern Med 99: 570PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Dahl JC, Glent Madsen L (1989) Treatment of hyperhidrosis manuum by tap water iontophoresis. Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) 69: 346–348Google Scholar
  47. Edmondson RA, Banerjee AK, Rennie JA (1992) Endoscopic transthoracic sympathectomy in the treatment of hyperhidrosis. Ann Surg 215: 289–293PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Elgart ML, Fuchs G (1987) Tapwater iontophoresis in the treatment of hyperhidrosis. Use of the Drionic device. Int J Dermatol 26: 194–197PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Ellis H (1986) Lumbar sympathectomy. Br J Hosp Med 35: 124–125PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Fricke PA (1992) Hyperhidrosis axillaris. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 117: 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Friedel G, Linder A, Toomes H (1993) Selective video-assisted thoracoscopic sympathectomy. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 41: 245–248PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Glent Madsen L, Dahl JC (1988) Axillary hyperhidrosis. Local treatment with aluminium-chloride hexahydrate 25% in absolute ethanol with and without supplementary treatment with triethanolamine. Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) 68: 87–89Google Scholar
  53. Goh CL (1990) Aluminum chloride hexahydrate versus palmar hyperhidrosis. Evaporimeter assessment. Int J Dermatol 29: 368–370PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Hashmonai M, Kopelman D, Kein O, Schein M (1992) Upper thoracic sympathectomy for primary palmar hyperhidrosis: long-term follow-up. Br J Surg 79: 268–271PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Hehir DJ, Brady MP (1993) Long-term results of limited thoracic sympathectomy for palmar hyperhidrosis. J Pediatr Surg 28: 909–911PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Hölzle E, Alberti N (1987) Long-term efficacy and side effects of tap water iontophoresis of palmoplantar hyperhidrosis — the usefulness of home therapy. Dermatologica 175: 126–135PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Hölzle E, Ruzicka T (1986) Treatment of hyperhidrosis by a battery-operated iontophoretic device. Dermatologica 172: 41–47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Hölzle E, Pauli M, Braun Falco O (1984) Leitungswasser-Iontophorese zur Behandlung von Hyperhidrosis manuum et pedum. Hautarzt 35: 142–147PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Huttenbrink KB (1986) Die Therapie des gustatorischen Schwitzens nach Parotidektomie. Freysches Syndrom. Laryngol Rhinol Otol Stuttg 65: 135–137PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Kao MC (1992) Laser endoscopic sympathectomy for palmar hyperhidrosis. Lasers Surg Med 12: 308–312PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Kuritzky A, Hering R, Goldhammer G, Bechar M (1984) Clonidine treatment in paroxysmal localized hyperhidrosis. Arch Neurol 41: 1210–1211PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Lycka BA (1992) EMLA. A new and effective topical anesthetic. J Dermatol Surg Oncol 18: 859–862PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Midtgaard K (1986) A new device for the treatment of hyperhidrosis by iontophoresis. Br J Dermatol 114: 485–488PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Moran KT, Brady MP (1991) Surgical management of primary hyperhidrosis. Br J Surg 78: 279–283PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Namer IJ, Kansu T, Zileli T (1986) Hyperhidrose paro-xystique localisee idiopathique. Traitement par la clonidine. Rev Neurol (Paris) 142: 706–709Google Scholar
  66. Petzoldt D; Lamminger C (1992) Hyperhidrosis axillaris. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 117: 1339PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Quraishy MS, Giddings AE (1993) Treating hyperhidrosis. Br Med J 306: 1221–1222Google Scholar
  68. Raulin C; Petzoldt D (1987) Iontophorese-Behandlung bei Hyperhidrosis manuum et pedum. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 112: 1871–1874PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Raulin C, Rosing S, Petzoldt D (1988) Heimbehandlung der Hyperhidrosis manuum et pedum durch Leitungswasser-Iontophorese. Hautarzt 39: 504–508PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Schmelzer A, Rosin V, Steinbach E (1992) Zur Therapie des Freyschen Syndroms durch ein Anhidrotisches Gel. Laryngorhinootologie 71: 59–63PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Shen JL, Lin GS, Li WM (1990) A new strategy of iontophoresis for hyperhidrosis. J Am Acad Dermatol 22: 239–241PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Shenaq SM, Spira M, Christ J (1987) Treatment of bilateral axillary hyperhidrosis by suction-assisted lipolysis technique. Ann Plast Surg 19: 548–551PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Simpson N (1988) Treating hyperhidrosis. Br Med J Clin Res Ed 296: 1345PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Sloan JB, Soltani K (1986) Iontophoresis in derma- tology. A review. J Am Acad Dermatol 15: 671–684PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Staas WE Jr, Nemunaitis G (1989) Management of reflex sweating in spinal cord injured patients. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 70: 544–546PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Stenquist B (1985) Axillary hyperhidrosis: A simple surgical procedure. J Dermatol Surg Oncol 11: 388–391PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Takase Y, Tsushimi K, Yamamoto K et al. (1992) Unilateral localized hyperhidrosis responding to treatment with clonazepam. Br J Dermatol 126: 416PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Theiss U, Kuhn I, Lucker PW (1991) Iontophoresis — is there a future for clinical application? Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol 13: 353–359PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Tronnier H (1984) Die Hyperhidrosis und ihre Behandlung. Med Monatsschr Pharm 7: 50–54PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Walder D, Penneys NS (1988) Antiperspirants and deodorizers. Clin Dermatol 6: 37–39PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Walker BR, Anderson JA, Edwards CR (1992) Cloni-dine therapy for Shapiro’s syndrome. Q J Med 82: 235–245PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. White JW Jr (1986) Treatment of primary hyperhidrosis. Mayo Clin Proc 61: 951–956PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Cox NH, Popple AW, Large DM (1992) Autofluorescence of clothing as an adjunct in the diagnosis of apocrine chromhidrosis. Arch Dermatol 128: 275–276PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Endo T, Nakayama Y (1993) Surgical treatment of axillary osmidrosis. Ann Plast Surg 30: 136–139PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Kobayashi T (1988) Electrosurgery using insulated needles: treatment of axillary bromhidrosis and hyperhidrosis. J Dermatol Surg Oncol 14: 749–752PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Leyden JJ, McGinley KJ, Hölzle E et al. (1981) The microbiology of the human axilla and its relationship to axillary odor. J Invest Dermatol 77: 413–416PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Lucky AW (1991) Acquired bromhidrosis in an 8-yearold boy secondary to a nasal foreign body. Arch Dermatol 127: 129PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Mali Gerrits MM, van de Kerkhof PC, Mier PD, Happle R (1988) Axillary apocrine chromhidrosis. Arch Dermatol 124: 494–496Google Scholar
  89. Marks JG Jr (1989) Treatment of apocrine chromhidrosis with topical capsaicin. J Am Acad Dermatol 21: 418–420PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Rumsfield JA, West DP (1991) Topical capsaicin in dermatologic and peripheral pain disorders. DICP 25: 381–387PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Schwarz T, Neumann R, Duschet P et al. (1989) Apokrine Chromhidrose. Hautarzt 40: 106–109PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Shehadeh N, Kligman AM (1963) The bacteria respon-sible for axillary odor. J Invest Dermatol 41: 3–11Google Scholar
  93. Smith M, Smith LG, Levinson B (1982) The use of smell in differential diagnosis. Lancet 2: 1452PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Arpey CJ, Nagashima Whalen LS et al. (1992) Congenital miliaria crystallina: case report and literature review. Pediatr Dermatol 9: 283–287PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Fenton DA, Wilkinson JD (1983) Milia, increased nail growth and hypertrichosis following treatment with benoxaprofen. J R Soc Med 76: 525–527PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Gupta AK, Ellis CN, Madison KC, Voorhees JJ (1986) Miliaria crystallina occurring in a patient treated with isotretinoin. Cutis 38: 275–276PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Kossard S, Commens CA (1988) Keratotic miliaria precipitated by radiotherapy. Arch Dermatol 124: 855–856PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Lillywhite LP (1992) Investigation into the environmental factors associated with the incidence of skin disease following an outbreak of miliaria rubra at a coal mine. Occup Med 42: 183–187Google Scholar
  99. Mayser P, Grunder K, Niles M, Schill WB (1993) Morbus Fox-Fordyce ( Apokrine Miliaria ). Hautarzt 44: 309–311PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Hölzle E, Pauli M, Braun Falco O (1984) Leitungswasser-Iontophorese zur Behandlung von Hyperhidrosis manuum et pedum. Hautarzt 35: 142–147PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Straka BF, Cooper PH, Greer KE (1991) Congenital miliaria crystallina. Cutis 47: 103–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Bailey DL, Barron D, Lucky AW (1989) Neutrophilic eccrine hidradenitis: a case report and review of the literature. Pediatr Dermatol 6: 33–38PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Bernstein EL Spielvogel RL, Topolsky DL (1992) Recurrent neutrophilic eccrine hidradenitis. Br J Dermatol 127: 529–533PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Burg G, Bieber T, Langecker P (1988) Lokalisierte neutrophile ekkrine Hidradenitis unter Mitoxantron: eine typische Zytostatikanebenwirkung. Hautarzt 39: 233–236PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Fernandez Cogolludo E, Ambrojo Antunez P, Aguilar Martinez A et al. (1989) Neutrophilic eccrine hidradenitis — a report of two additional cases. Clin Exp Dermatol 14: 341–346PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Greenbaum BH, Heymann WR, Reid CS et al. (1988) Chemotherapy-associated eccrine hidradenitis: neutrophilic eccrine hidradenitis reevaluated: the role of neutrophilic infiltration. Med Pediatr Oncol 16: 351–355PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Scallan PJ, Kettler AH, Levy ML, Tschen JA (1988) Neutrophilic eccrine hidradenitis. Evidence implicat-ing bleomycin as a causative agent. Cancer 62: 2532–2536PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Kossard S, Commens CA (1988) Keratotic miliaria precipitated by radiotherapy. Arch Dermatol 124: 855–856PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Smith KJ, Skelton HG 3d, James WD et al. (1990) Neutrophilic eccrine hidradenitis in HIV-infected patients. J Am Acad Dermatol 23: 945–947PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Thorisdottir K, Tomecki KJ, Bergfeld WF, Andresen SW (1993) Neutrophilic eccrine hidradenitis. J Am Acad Dermatol 28: 775–777PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Bickley LK, Goldberg DJ, Imaeda S et al. (1989) Treatment of multiple apocrine hidrocystomas with the carbon dioxide (CO2) laser. J Dermatol Surg Oncol 15: 599–602PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Carey AB, Park HK, Burke WA (1988) Multiple eruptive syringomas associated with Down’s syndrome. J Am Acad Dermatol 19: 759–760PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Hurt MA, Igra Serfaty H, Stevens CS (1990) Eccrine syringofibroadenoma (Mascaro). An acrosyringeal hamartoma. Arch Dermatol 126: 945–949PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Itin P, Bircher A, Gudat F (1989) Ekkrine Hidrozystome. Hautarzt 40: 647–649PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Kruger M (1990) Therapie von Syringomen der Augenlider. Z Hautkr 65: 1047–1048PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Lee AY, Kawashima M, Nakagawa H, Ishibashi Y (1991) Generalized eruptive syringoma. J Am Acad Dermatol 25: 570–571PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Lui H, Stewart WD, English JC, Wood WS (1992) Eccrine syringofibroadenomatosis: a clinical and histologic study and review of the literature. J Am Acad Dermatol 26: 805–813PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Maloney ME (1982) An easy method for removal of syringoma. J Dermatol Surg Oncol 8: 973–975PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Masri Fridling GD, Elgart ML (1992) Eccrine hidrocy-stomas. J Am Acad Dermatol 26: 780–782PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Matthäus WG, Lange G, Roitzsch E (1976) Die Kryotherapie von Lid-und Bindehauttumoren. Ophtalmologica 173: 53–62Google Scholar
  121. Megahed M, Hölzle E (1993) Papillary eccrine adenoma. A case report with immunohistochemical examination. Am J Dermatopathol 15: 150–155PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Nerad JA, Anderson RL (1988) CO2 laser treatment of eyelid syringomas. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 4: 91–94PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Rhodes LE, Verbov JL (1993) Widespread syringomata in Down’s syndrome. Clin Exp Dermatol 18: 333–334PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Sala GP, Marinaro P, Rossi E et al. (1990) Einseitige nävoide Syringome. Hautarzt 41: 272–273PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Zitelli JA (1983) Wound healing by secondary intention. J Am Acad Dermatol 9: 407–415PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Constantin E. Orfanos
    • 1
  • Claus Garbe
    • 1
  1. 1.Universitäts-Hautklinik und PoliklinikKlinikum Benjamin Franklin der Freien Universität BerlinBerlinDeutschland

Personalised recommendations