Advertisement

Pilzinfektionen

  • Constantin E. Orfanos
  • Claus Garbe

Zusammenfassung

Pilze sind ubiquitär in unserer Umwelt vorhandene Organismen Sie können in die Haut, in das Haar und in die Nägel des Menschen eindringen, ernähren sich mittels Keratinaseaktivität von Eiweißspaltprodukten des Keratins und werden direkt vom Erdreich oder durch Tier-zu-Mensch- bzw. durch Mensch-zuMensch-Kontakte übertragen. Pilze vermehren sich in der Regel durch Sporen, die oft in großen Mengen gebildet werden. Aufgrund der geringen Größe (5–25 µm) werden Pilzsporen über weite Strecken durch die Luft transportiert („airborne“). Sie werden inhaliert und können allergische Reaktionen der oberen und unteren Luftwege hervorrufen, einschl. Asthma und Rhinitis (Aspergillus, Cladosporium), oder aber Infektionen der Lunge als erstem Manifestationsorgan.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literatur

  1. Honig K, Wortham C, Zamani K, et al. (1993) Terfenadin-Ketoconazol interaction: Pharmacokinetic and electrokardiographic consequences. J Am Med Assoc 269: 1513–1531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Woosley R, Chen Y, Freiman J et al. (1993) Mechanism of the cardiotoxic action of terfenadin. J Am Med Assoc 269: 1532–1549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anaissie E, Paetznick V, Proffitt R, et al. (1991) Comparison of the in vitro antifungal activity of free and liposome-encapsulated amphotericin B. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 10: 665–668PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brajburg J, Powderly W, Kobayashi G, Medoff G (1990) Amphotericin B: Current understanding of mechanisms of action. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 34: 183–138Google Scholar
  5. Caillot D, Casanovas O, Solary E, et al. (1993) Efficacy and tolerance of an amphotericin B lipid (Intra-lipid°) emulsion in the treatment of candidaemia in neutropenic patients. J Antimicro Chemother 31: 161–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Caillot D, Chavanet P, Casanovas O, et al. (1992) Clinical evaluation of a new lipid-based delivery system for intravenous administration of Amphotericin B. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 11: 722–725PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chavanet PY, Garry I, Charlier N, et al. (1992) Trial of glucose versus fat emulsion in preparation of amphotericin for use in HIV infected patients with candidiasis. Br Med J 305: 921–925CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Christiansen K, Bernard E, Gold J, Armstrong D (1985) Distribution and activity of amphotericin B in humans. J Infect Dis 152: 1037–1043PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Davidson RN, Croft SL, Scott A, et al. (1991) Liposomal amphotericin B in drug-resistant visceral leishmaniasis. Lancet 337: 1061–1062PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gallis H, Drew R, Pickard W (1990) Amphotericin B: 30 years of clinical experience. Rev Infect Dis 12: 308–326PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Janoff AS, Boni LT, Popescu MC, et al. (1988) Unusual lipid structures selectively reduce the toxicity of amphotericin B. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 85: 6122–6126PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Juliano RL, Christopher W, Grant M, et al. (1987) Mechanism of the selective toxicity of amphotericin B incorporated into liposomes. Mol Pharmacol 31: 1–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Kan V, Bennett J, Amantea M, et al. (1991) Comparative safety, tolerance and pharmacokinetics of amphotericin B lipid complex and amphotericin B desoxycholate in healthy male volunteers. J Infect Dis 164: 418–422PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kirsh R, Goldstein R, Tarloff J, et al. (1988) An emulsion formulation of amphotericin B improves the therapeutic index when treating systemic murine candidiasis. J Infect Dis 158: 1065–1070PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Meunier F, Prentice HG, Ringden O (1991) Liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome): Safety data from a phase II/III clinical trial. J Antimicrob Chemother 28 [Suppl B]: 83–91PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Moreau P, Milpied N, Fayette N, et al. (1992) Reduced renal toxicity and improved clinical tolerance of amphotericin B mixed with Intralipid° compared with conventional amphotericin B in neutropenic patients. J Antimicrob Chemother 30: 535–541PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ringden O, Meunier F, Tollemar J, et al. (1991) Efficacy of amphotericin B encapsulated in liposomes (AmBisome) in the treatment of invasive fungal infections in immunocompromised patients. J Antimicrob Chemother 28 [Suppl B]: 73–82PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Cauwenbergh G, Degreef H, Heykants J et al. (1988) Pharmacokinetic profile of orally administered itraconazole in human skin. J Am Acad Dermatol 18: 263–268PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hay RJ, Clayton YM, Moore MK et al. (1988) An evaluation of itraconazole in the treatment of onychomycosis. Br J Dermatol 119: 359–366PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Saul A, Bonifaz A (1990) Itraconazol in common dermatophyte infections of the skin: Fixed treatment schedules. J Am Acad Dermatol 23 [Suppl]: 554–558PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Walsoe I, Stangerup M, Svejgaard E (1990) Itraconazole in onychomycosis. Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) 70: 137–140Google Scholar
  22. Anaissie E, Bodey GP, Kantarjan H et al. (1991) Fluconazol therapy for chronic disseminated candidosis in patients with leucemia and prior amphotericin B therapy. Am J Med 91: 142–150PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Clissold SP, Heel RC (1986) Tiokonazole: revision of antifungal activity and therapeutic use in superficial mycosis. Drugs 31: 1–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Coldiron BM, Manders SM (1991) Persistent candida intertrigo treated with fluconazole. Arch Dermatol 127: 165–166PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. De Bersaques J, Bjerke JR, Borelli S, et al. (1992) Comparison of oral fluconazole and topical clotrimazole in the treatment of fungal infections of the skin: european and american experience. Int J Dermatol 31 [Suppl 2]: 21–26Google Scholar
  26. De Cuyper C, Amblard P, Austad J, et al. (1992) Non-comparative study of fluconazole in the treatment of patients with common fungal infections of the skin. Int J Dermatol 31 [Suppl 2]: 17–20Google Scholar
  27. Degreef H (1992) The treatment of superficial skin infections caused by dermatophytes. In: Borgers M, Hay R, Rinaldi MG (eds) Current topics in medical mycology. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York Tokyo, pp 189–206Google Scholar
  28. DeWit S, Goossens H, Weerts D et al. (1989) Comparison of fluconazole and ketokonazole for oropharyngeal candidiasis in AIDS. Lancet 1: 746–748CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Faergemann J, Laufen H (1993) Levels of fluconazole in serum, stratum corneum, epidermis-dermis (without stratum corneum) and eccrine sweat. Clin Exper Dermatol 18: 102–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fischbein A, Haneke E, Lacner K, et al. (1992) Comparative evaluation of oral fluconazole and oral ketoconazole in the treatment of fungal infections of the skin. Int J Dermatol 31 [Suppl 2]: 12–16Google Scholar
  31. Galgiani JN (1990) Fluconazole, a new antifungal agent. Ann Intern Med 113: 117–119Google Scholar
  32. Hay RJ (1988) Fluconazol in the treatment of patients with chronic mucocutaneous candidosis. Br J Dermatol 119: 683–685PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hay RJ (1992) Treatment of dermatomycoses and onychomycoses — state of the art. Clin Exp Dermatol 17: 2–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Larsen RA (1991) Azoles and AIDS. J Infect Dis 162: 727–730CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kaufman CA, Bradley SF, Ross SC et al. (1991) Hepatosplenic candidiasis: successful treatment with fluconazole. Am J Med 8: 137–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Lyman CA, Walsh TJ (1992) Systemically administered antifungal agents. Drugs 44: 9–35PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Sanguineti A, Carmichael K, Campbell K (1993): Fluconazole-resistent Candida albicans after long-term suppressive therapy. Arch Intern Med 153: 1122–1124PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Allen HB, Honig PJ, Leyden JJ et al. (1982) Selenium sulfide: Adjunctive therapy for tinea capitis. Pediatrics 69: 81–83PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Bergstresser PR, Elewski B, Hanifin J et al. (1993) Topical terbinafine and clotrimazole in interdigital tinea pedis. A multicenter comparison of cure and relapse rates with 1- and 4week treatment regiments. J Am Acad Dermatol 28: 648–651PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Bourlond A, Lachapelle JM, Aussems J et al. (1989) Double-blind comparison of itraconazole with griseofulvin in the treatment of tinea corporis and tinea cruris. Int J Dermatol 28: 410–414PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Clissold SP, Heel RC (1996) Tiokonazole: revision of antifungal activity and therapeutic use in superficial mycosis. Drugs 31: 1–22Google Scholar
  42. Degreef H (1992) The treatment of superficial skin infections caused by dermatophytes. In: Borgers M, Hay R, Rinaldi MG (eds) Current topics in medical mycology. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 189–206Google Scholar
  43. Gan VN, Petruska M, Ginsburg CM (1987) Epidemiology and treatment of tinea capitis: Ketoconazole vs griseofulvin. Pediatr Infect Dis J 6: 46–49PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Ginsburg CM, McCracken GH Jr, Petruska M et al. (1983) Effect of feeding on bioavailability of griseofulvin in children. J Pediatr 102: 309–311PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Ginsburg GM, Gan VN, Petruska M (1987) Randomized controlled trial of intralesional corticosteroid and griseofulvin vs griseofulvin alone for treatment of kerion. Pediatr Infect Dis J 6: 1084–1087PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Hay RJ (1992) Treatment of dermatomycoses and onychomycoses-state of the art. Clin Exp Dermatol 17: 2–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Holmberg K (1986) In vitro assessment of antifungal drug resistance. Acta Derm Venereol [Suppl] 121: 131–138Google Scholar
  48. Jung EG, Bisco A, Azzollini E et al. (1988) Fenticonazol cream once daily in dermatomycosis, a double-blind controlled trial versus bifonazole. Dermatologica 177: 104–108PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Korting HC, Rosenkranz S (1981) In vitro susceptibility of dermatophytes from Munich to griseofulvin, miconazole and ketoconazole. Mycoses 33: 136–139Google Scholar
  50. Lambert DR, Siegle RJ, Camisa C (1989) Griseofulvin and ketokonazole in the treatment of dermatophyte infections. Int J Dermatol 28: 300–304PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Legendre R, Esola-Macre J (1990) Itraconazole in the treatment of tinea capitis. J Am Acad Dermatol 23: 559–560PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lesher JL, Smith JG (1987) Antifungal agents in der- matology. J Am Acad Dermatol 17: 383–396PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lyman CA, Walsh TJ (1992) Systemically administered antifungal agents. Drugs 44: 9–35PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Macura AB (1991) Fungal resistance to antimycotic drugs: a growing problem. Int J Dermatol 30: 181–183PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Macura AB (1993) Dermatophyte infections. Int J Dermatol 32: 313–323PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Nyawaldo JO, Boire M (1988) Single dose and intermittent griseofulvin regimens in the treatment of tinea capitis in Kenya. Mycoses 31: 229–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Saul A, Bonifaz A (1990) Itraconazole in common dermatophyte infections of the skin. Fixed treatment schedules. J Am Acad Dermatol 23: 554–558PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Savin RC, Zaias N (1990) Treatment of chronic moccasin-type tinea pedis with terbinafine: A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Am Acad Dermatol 23: 804–807PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Tanz RR, Hebert AA, Esterly NB (1988) Treating tinea capitis: Should ketoconazole replace griseofulvin? J Pediatr 112: 987–991PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Walsoe I, Stangerup M, Svejgaard E (1990) Itraconazole in onychomycosis. Acta Derm Venereol 70: 137–140PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Borelli D, Jacobs PH (1991) Tinea versicolor: Epidemiology, clinical and therapeutic aspects. J Am Acad Dermatol 25: 300–305PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Van Cutzem U (1990) The in vitro antifungal activity of ketokonazole, zink pyrithione and selenium sulphide against Pityrosporum and their efficacy as a shampoo in the treatment of experimental pityrosporosis in guinea-pigs. J Am Acad Dermatol 22: 993–998CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Walsoe I, Stangerup M, Svejgaard E (1990) Itraconazole in onychomycosis. Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) 70: 137–140Google Scholar
  64. André J, Achten G (1987) Onychomycosis. Int J Dermatol 26: 481–490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Bergstresser PR, Elewski B, Hanifin J et al. (1993) Topical terbinafine and clotrimazole in interdigital tinea pedis: A multicenter-comparison of cure and relapse rates with 1- und 4-week treatment regimen. J Am Acad Dermatol 28: 648–651PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Cauwenbergh G, Degreef H, Heykants J et al. (1988) Pharmacokinetic profile of orally administered itraconazole in human skin. J Am Acad Dermatol 18: 263–268PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Del Palacio A, López-Gómez S, Moreno-Palancar P et al. (1989) A clinical double blind trial comparing amorolfine cream 0.5% (Ro 14–4767) with bifonazole cream 1% in the treatment of dermatomycoses. Clin Exper Dermatol 14: 141–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Del Palacio A, López-Gómez S, Gimeno C et al. (1991) A randomized comparative study: Amorolfine (cream 0.125%, 0.25% and 0.5%) in dermatomycoses. J Dermatol Treat 1: 299–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Goodfield MJD (1992) Short duration therapy with terbinafine for dermatophyte onychomycosis: A multicenter trial. Br J Dermatol 129 [Suppl 39]: 33–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Hay RJ (ed) (1992) Amorolfine, a breakthrough in topical antimycotic therapy. Dermatology 184 [Suppl 1]: 1–30Google Scholar
  71. Hay RJ, Baran R, Moore MK, Wilkinson JD (1988) Candida onychomycosis: an evaluation of the role of Candida spp. in nail disease. Br J Dermatol 118: 47–58PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Hay RJ, Logan RA, Moore MK et al. (1991) A comparative study of terbinafine vs griseofulvin in the treatment of „dry type“ dermatophyte infections. J Am Acad Dermatol 24: 243–246PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Hay RJ, Clayton YM, Moore MK et al. (1988) An evaluation of itraconazole in the treatment of onychomycosis. Br J Dermatol 119: 359–366PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Lowe G, Green C, Jennings P (1993) Hepatitis associ- ated with terbinafin treatment. Br Med J 306: 248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Nolting SK (1984) Non-traumatic removal of the nail and simultaneous treatment of onychomycosis. Dermatologica 169 [Suppl 11: 117–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Nolting S, Reinel D, Semig G, et al. (1993) Amorolfine spray in the treatment of foot mycoses (a dose-finding study). Br J Dermatol 129: 170–174PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Nolting S, Semig G, Friedrich HK, et al. (1992) Double blind comparison of amorolfine and bifonazole in the treatment of dermatomycoses. Clin Exp Dermatol 17: 8–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Piérard GE, Arrese-Estrada J, Piérard-Franchimont C (1993) Treatment of onychomycosis. Traditional approaches. J Am Acad Dermatol 29: 41–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Polak A (1988) Mode of action of morpholine derivatives. Ann NY Acad Sci 544: 221–228PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Roseeuw D, De Doncker P (1993) New approaches to the treatment of onychomycosis. J Am Acad Dermatol 29: 45–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Saul A, Bonifaz A (1990) Itraconazol in common dermatophyte infections of the skin: Fixed treatment schedules. J Am Acad Dermatol 23 [Suppl]: 554–558PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Van der Schroeff JG, Circel PKS, Crijus MP (1992) A randomized treatment duration-finding study of terbinafine in onychomycosis. Br J Dermatol 125 [Suppl 39]: 36–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Villars V, Jones TC (1989) Clinical efficacy and tolerability of terbinafine (Lamisil®); a new topical and systemic fungicidal long for treatment of dermatomycoses. Clin Exper Dermatol 14: 124–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Walsoe I, Stangerup M, Svejgaard E (1990) Itraconazole in onychomycosis. Acta Derm Venereol 70: 137–140PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Willemsen M, De Doncker P, Willems J, et al. (1993) Posttreatment itraconazole levels in the nail: new implications for treatment of onychomycosis. J Am Acad Dermatol 26: 731–735CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Zaias N (1990) Management of onychomycosis with oral terbinafine. J Am Acad Dermatol 23: 810–812PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Zaias N, Serrano L (1989) The successful treatment of finger Trichophyton rubrum onychomycosis infection with oral terbinafine. Clin Exp Dermato114: 120–123Google Scholar
  88. Zang M (1989) L’amorolfine: résultats cliniques préliminaires en dermatologie. Bull Soc Fr Mycol Med I: 17–22Google Scholar
  89. Bickley LK, Berman IJ, Hood AF (1985) Fixed cutaneous sporotrichosis: Unusual histopathology following intralesional corticosteroid administration. J Am Acad Dermatol 12: 1007–1012PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Calhoun DL, Waskin H, White MP et al. (1991) Treatment of systemic sporotrichosis with ketokonazole. Rev Infect Dis 13: 47–51PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Campos P, Arenas R, Coronado H (1994) Epidemic cutaneous sporotrichosis. Int J Dermatol 33: 38–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Dellatorre DL, Lattanand A, Buckley HR et al. (1982) Fixed cutaneous sporotrichosis of the face: Successful treatment of a case and review of the literature. J Am Acad Dermatol 6: 97–100PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Purvis RS, Diven DG, Drechsel RD et al. (1993) Sporotrichosis presenting as arthritis and subcutaneous nodules. J Am Acad Dermatol 28: 879–884PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Restrepo A, Robledo A, Gomez I et al. (1986) Itraconazole therapy in lymphangitic and cutaneous sporotrichosis. Arch Dermatol 122: 413–417PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Rotowa NA, Shadomy HJ, Shadomy S (1990) In vitro activities of polyene and inúdazol antifungal agents in unusual opportunistic fungal pathogens. Mycoses 33: 203–211PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Shaw JC, Levinson W, Montanaro A (1989) Sporotrichosis in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. J Am Acad Dermatol 21: 1145–1147PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Viviani MA, Tortorano AM, Pagano A et al. (1990) European experience with itraconazole in systemic mycoses. J Am Acad Dermatol 23: 587–593PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Chermsirivathana S, Bunyaratavej K, Pupaibul K (1979) The treatment of chromomycosis with 5-fluorocytosine. Int J Dermatol 18: 377–379PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Defaveri J, Graybill JR (1990) Treatment of chronic murine chromoblastomycosis with the triazole SCH 39304. Am J Trop Med Hyg 42: 601–606PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Heyl T (1985) Treatment of chromomycosis with itraconazole. Br J Dermatol 112: 728–729PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Lubritz RR (1977) Cryosurgery for benign and malignant skin lesions: Treatment with a new instrument. South Med J 69: 1401–1405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. McBurney EI (1982) Chromoblastomycosis treatment with ketoconazole. Cutis 30: 746–748PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. McGinnis MR (1983) Chromoblastomycosis and phaeohyphomycosis: New concepts, diagnosis, and mycology. J Am Acad Dermatol 8: 1–16PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Nishimoto K, Yoshimura S, Honma K (1984) Chromo-mycosis spontaneously healed. Int J Dermatol 23: 408–410PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Silber JG, Gombert ME, Green KM et al. (1983) Treatment of chromomycosis with ketoconazole and 5-fluorocytosine. J Am Acad Dermatol 8: 236–238PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Tagami H, Ginoza M, Imaizumi S et al. (1984) Successful treatment of chromomycosis with topical heat therapy. J Am Acad Dermatol 10: 615–619PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Yanase K, Yamada M (1978) Pocket-warmer therapy of chromomycosis. Arch Dermatol 114: 1095PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Böhler K, Metze D, Poitschek C, et al. (1990) Cutane- ous aspergillosis. Clin Exp Dermatol 15: 446–450PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Cockerell CJ (1990) Cutaneous manifestations of HIV infection other than Kaposi’s sarcoma. J Am Acad Dermatol 22: 1260–1269PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Denning DW, Tucker RM, Hanson LH (1990) Itraconazole in opportunistic mycoses: Cryptococcosis and aspergillosis. J Am Acad Dermatol 23: 602–607PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Dupont B (1990) Itraconazole therapy in aspergillosis: Study in 49 patients. J Am Acad Dermatol 23: 607–614PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Googe PD, De Coste SD, Herold WH, et al. (1989) Primary cutaneous aspergillosis mimicking dermatophytosis. Arch Pathol Lab Med 113: 1284–1286PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Harmon CB, Su D, Peters MS (1993) Cutaneous aspergillosis complicating pyoderma gangrenosum. J Am Acad Dermatol 29: 656–658PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Khardori N, Hayat S, Rolston K (1989) Cutaneous Rhizopus and Aspergillus infections in five patients with cancer. Arch Dermatol 125: 952–956PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Meunier F (1990) Fluconazole treatment of fungal infections in the immunocompromised host. Semin Oncol 17 [Suppl 61: 19–23Google Scholar
  116. Staib F, Bennhold I, Voigt HW et al. (1987) Amphotericin B und Fluzytosin-Therapie bei Aspergillus-Pneumonie und akutem Nierenversagen. Klin Wochenschr 65: 40–47PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Van den Bossche H, Marichal P, Willemsens G et al. (1990) Saperconazole: a selective inhibitor of the cytochrome P450 dependent ergosterol synthesis in Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Mycosis 33: 335–352Google Scholar
  118. Vivani MA, Tortorano AM, Langer M (1989) Experience with itraconazole in cryptococcosis and aspergillosis. J Infect 18: 151–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Barfield L, Iacobelli D, Hashimoto K (1988) Secondary cutaneous cryptococcosis: Case report and review of 22 cases. J Cutan Pathol 15: 385–392PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Calck MV, Motte S, Serruys E (1988) Cryptococcal anal ulceration in a patient with AIDS. Am J Gastroenterol 83: 1306–1308PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Chuck SL, Sande MA (1989) Infections with Cryptococcus neoformans in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. N Engl J Med 321: 794–799PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Cooper CM, Gordon DL, Reid C, Philpot CR (1992) Cutaneous cryptococcosis: recurrence following oral fluconazole treatment. Austral J Dermatol 33: 93–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Denning DW, Tucker RM, Hanson LH (1990) Itraconazole in opportunistic mycoses: Cryptococcosis and aspergillosis. J Am Acad Dermatol 23: 602–607PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Iacobelli FW, Jacobs MI, Cohen RP (1979) Primary cutaneous cryptococcosis. Arch Dermatol 115: 984–985CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Jones C, Orengo I, Rosen T (1990) Cutaneous cryptococcosis simulating Kaposi’s sarcoma in the AIDS. Cutis 47: 163–167Google Scholar
  126. Manrique P, Mayo J, Alvarez JA et al. (1992) Polymorphous cutaneous cryptococcosis: nodular, herpes-like and molluscum-like lesions in a patient with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. J Am Acad Dermatol 127: 1848–1849Google Scholar
  127. Meunier F (1990) Fluconazole treatment of fungal infections in the immunocompromised host. Semin Oncol 17 [Suppl 6]: 19–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Poizot-Martin I, Grob JJ, Fournerie JR et al. (1991) Cryptococcose cutanée a forme de molluscum contagiosum an cours de SIDA. Ann Dermatol Venereol 118: 29–32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Shuttleworth D, Philpot CM, Knight AG (1989) Cutaneous cryptococcosis: Treatment with oral fluconazole. Br J Dermatol 120: 683–687PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Staib F, Seibold M (1988) Mycologie diagnostic assessment of the efficacy of amphotericin B + flucytosine to control cryptococcus neoformans in AIDS patients. Mycoses 31: 175–186PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Sugar AM, Saunders C (1988) Oral fluconazole as suppressive therapy of disseminated cryptococcosis in patients with AIDS. Am J Med 85: 481–489PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Vivani MA, Tortorano AM, Langer M (1989) Experience with itraconazole in cryptococcosis and aspergillosis. J Infect 18: 151–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Dijkstra JWE (1989) Histoplasmosis. Dermatol Clin 7: 251–257Google Scholar
  134. Johnson PC, Khardori, Najiar F et al. (1988) Progressive disseminated histoplasmosis in patients with AIDS. Am J Med 85: 152–158PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Kurtin PJ, McKinsey DS, Gupta MR (1990) Histoplasmosis in patients with AIDS. Am J Clin Pathol 93: 367–372PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Mandell W, Goldberg DM, Neu HC (1986) Histoplasmosis in patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Am J Med 81: 974–978PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Catanzaro A, Fierer J, Friedman PJ (1990) Fluconazole in the treatment of persistent coccidioidomycosis. Chest 97: 666–669PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Galgiani JN (1983) Ketoconazole in the treatment of coccidioidomycosis. Drugs 26: 355–36PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Bakos L, Kronfeld M, Hampe S et al. (1989) Disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis with skin lesions in a patient with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. J Am Acad Dermatol 20: 854–855PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Goldani LZ, Martinez R, Landell GA et al. (1989) Paracoccidioidomycosis in a patient with acquired immundeficiency syndrome. Mycopathologia 195: 71–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Negroni R (1993) (1993) Paracoccidioidomycosis (south american blastomycosis, Lutz’s mycosis). Int J Dermatol 32: 847–859CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Restrepo-Moreno A (1990) Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. In: Mandel GL, Douglas RG, Bennett JE (eds) Principles and practice of infectious diseases ( 3rd ed ). Churchill-Livingstone, New York, pp 2028–2031Google Scholar
  143. Padilha-Gonsalves A (1987) Paracoccidioidomycosis. In: Orfanos CE, Stadler R, Gollnick H (eds) Dermatology in five continents. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York Tokyo, pp 356–360Google Scholar
  144. Blume U, De Almeida HL, Seibold M, et al. (1992) Mucocutaneous blastomycosis with epididymitis and orchitis blastomycetica: successful long-term treatment with ketoconazole. Eur J Dermatol 2: 31–34Google Scholar
  145. Dismukes WE, Cloud G, Bontes C et al. (1985) Treatment of blastomycosis and histoplasmosis with ketoconazole. Ann Intern Med 103: 861Google Scholar
  146. Drouhet E, Dupont B (1983) Laboratory and clinical assessment of ketoconazole in deepseated mycosis. Am J Med 74: 30–57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Klein BS (1990) North American blastomycosis. In: Jacobs PH, Nall L (eds) Antifungal therapy. Dekker, New York, p 178Google Scholar
  148. Truhan AP, Roenigk HH (1987) Blastomycosis in a patient with psoriasis: Treatment with ketoconazole. Cutis 39: 413–417PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Baruzzi RG, Rodriguez DA, Michalany NS et al. (1989) Squamous cell carcinoma and lobomycosis (Jorge Lobo’s disease). Int J Dermatol 28: 183–185PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Burges GE, Walls CT, Maize JC (1987) Subcutaneous phaehyphomycosis caused by Exserophilum rostra-turn in an immunocompetent host. Arch Dermatol 123: 1346–1350PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Coldiron BM, Wiley EL, Rinaldi MG (1990) Cutaneous phaehyphomycosis caused by a rare fungal pathogen Hormonema dermatioides: successful treatment with Ketokonazole. J Am Acad Dermatol 23: 363–367PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Krishnan KN (1979) Clinical trial of diaminodiphenylsulfone (DDS) in nasal and nasopharyngeal rhinosporidiosis. Laryngoscope 89: 291–295Google Scholar
  153. Lawrence DN, Ajello N (1986) Lobomycosis in Western Brazil: report of a clinical trial with ketokonazol. Am J Trop Med Hyg 35: 162–166PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Mark Ming-Long Hsu, Yu-Yun Lee J (1993) Cutaneous and subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exserophilum rostratum. J Am Acad Dermatol 28: 340–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Noel SB, Greer DL, Abadie SH et al. (1988) Primary cutaneous phaehyphomycosis. Report of 3 cases. J Am Acad Dermatol 18: 1023–1030PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. McGinnis MR (1983) Chromoblastomycosis and phaeohyphomycosis: New concepts, diagnosis, and mycology. J Am Acad Dermatol 8: 1–16PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Rodriguez Toro G (1993) Lobomycosis. Int J Dermatol 32: 324–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Rotowa NA, Shadomy HJ, Shadomy S (1990) In vitro activities of polyene and imidazol antifungal agents in unusual opportunistic fungal pathogens. Mycoses 33: 203–211PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Sharkey PK, Graybill JR, Hanson LH et al. (1990) Itrakonacole treatment of phaeohyphomycosis. J Am Acad Dermatol 23: 577–586PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Silva D (1978) Traitement de la maladie de Jorge Lobo par la clofazimine (B 663). Bull Soc Pathol Exot 71: 409–412Google Scholar
  161. Tyzing SK, Lee PC, Walsh P et al. (1989) Papular protothecosis of the chest Immunologic evaluation and treatment with a combination of oral tetracycline and topical amphotericin B. Arch Dermatol 125: 1249–1252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Elewski BE (1992) Cutaneous fungal infections. IgakuShoin, New York Tokyo, pp 1–255Google Scholar

Weiterfährendes Schrifttum

  1. El Sheikh Mahgoub (ed) (1989) Tropical mycosis. Janssen Research Council, pp 1–226Google Scholar
  2. Hay RJ (1988) Fortschritte in der lokalen antimykotischen Therapie, Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York Tokyo, S 1–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Hay RJ (1990) Fungal infections in the kinetics and the role of oral therapy. Br J Clin Pract 44 [Suppl 711: 1–123Google Scholar
  4. Iwata K, Van den Bossche H (1985) In vitro and in vivo evaluation of antifungal agents. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 1–305Google Scholar
  5. Maddin S, Scher RK (1993) Superficial fungal infections in evolution. Focus on the systemic therapeutic options for the therapy of onychomycosis. J Am Acad Dermatol 29: 35–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Merk H (1993) Antimykotika, Teil I und II. Hautarzt 44: 191–198, 257–266Google Scholar
  7. Petranyi G, Ryder NS, Stütz A (1984) Allylamine derivatives: new class of synthetic antifungal agents inhibiting fungal squalence epoxidase. Science 224: 1239–1241PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Reitmeier G (1991) Topische Antimyzetika-Therapie in der Dermatologie. In: Hornstein OP, Meinhof W (Hrsg) Fortschritte der Mykologie. Perimed, Erlangen, S 98–106Google Scholar
  9. Stahlmann R, Schulz-Schalge T, Lode H (1991) Wirkungsweise und Pharmakokinetik neuerer AzolAntimykotika. In: Staib F, Huhn D (Hrsg) Pilzinfektionen bei abwehrgeschwächten Patienten. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York Tokyo, pp 73–86Google Scholar
  10. Staib F (1991) Zunehmende Inzidenz tiefer Mykosen-Epidemiologie, Diagnostik und Therapie. Bundesgesund 34: 212–216Google Scholar
  11. Staib F, Huhn D (1991) Pilzinfektionen bei abwehrgeschwächten Patienten. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York TokyoCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Constantin E. Orfanos
    • 1
  • Claus Garbe
    • 1
  1. 1.Universitäts-Hautklinik und PoliklinikKlinikum Benjamin Franklin der Freien Universität BerlinBerlinDeutschland

Personalised recommendations