Properties of the Main Impurities

  • Klaus Graff
Part of the Springer Series in Materials Science book series (SSMATERIALS, volume 24)

Abstract

In the past decade significant progress has been made in the techniques for the detection, and the investigation of deep energy levels and precipitates of transition-metal impurities in silicon. Therefore, our knowledge of the impurity contamination and of its distribution on wafer surfaces has considerably increased. As a consequence, a number of contamination sources in device manufacturing could be eliminated. The purity of the wafers before and after processing has been improved by an order of magnitude, and sometimes by even much more.

Keywords

Zinc Entropy Titanium Phosphorus Mercury 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Klaus Graff
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Telefunken ElectronicHeilbronnGermany
  2. 2.HeilbronnGermany

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