The increasing complexity and miniaturization of modern integrated circuits requires higher yields and hence a decreasing density of defects in the electrically active zone of a silicon device. In a submicrometer structure a single metal precipitate may cause a distortion of electrical properties and consequently result in a faulty integrated circuit. Therefore economic production of devices requires materials and processes of the utmost purity. Better knowledge of the behavior of the main impurities which are usually introduced into the silicon material during device production helps to reduce additional contamination. As a consequence the subsequent purification of the silicon material gained through gettering processes requires less effort. Since modern dislocation- and swirl-free silicon crystals exhibit less grown-in gettering centers, the requirements for cleanness or for high gettering effectiveness are enhanced. The impurity problem is rendered even more serious by the tendency in modern technology to lower the temperature of the diffusion processes or to replace phosphorus diffusion, which is a well-known gettering process by phosphorus implantation and rapid thermal processing.
KeywordsNickel Phosphorus Europe Tate
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