Living systems are in a state of continuous change. The molecules and molecular aggregates which form a cell have a life-time generally very much shorter than that of the cell itself. The continuous synthesis and degradation (turnover) that can be described in a system under steady state conditions as dynamic equilibrium (see p. 41) means that the cell is a structure of material which is extremely dynamic. In addition to this, the cell is also characterised by the time-dependent features of growth, differentiation and morphogenesis which demand a controlled deviation from the stationary condition and place additional demands on the metabolic efficiency and on the regulatory mechanisms of the cell. In the section which follows a short overview of the mechanisms and laws governing metabolism is given.
KeywordsSugar Entropy Sucrose Fermentation Maize
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Baker DA, Hall JL (1988) Solute transport in plant cells and tissues. Longman, HarlowGoogle Scholar
- Harold FM (1986) The vital force: A study of bioenergetics. Freeman, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Maathuis FJM, Prins HBA (1991) Patch-clamp studies in cell membranes of higher plants. Acta Bot Neerl 40:197–209Google Scholar
- Martinoia E (1992) Transport processes in vacuoles of higher plants. Bot Acta 105:232–245Google Scholar
- Morris JG (1974) A biologist’s physical chemistry, 2nd edn. Arnold, LondonGoogle Scholar
- Nicholls DG (1982) Bioenergetics. An introduction to the chemiosmotic theory. Academic Press, London New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Stein WD (1986) Transport and diffusion across cell membranes. Academic Press, OrlandoGoogle Scholar