The Nucleus of the Atom

  • Hermann Haken
  • Hans Christoph Wolf


Beginning in the 1890s, Lenard investigated the attenuation of electron beams passing through matter. This attenuation can have two causes: the electrons can lose their energy by exciting or ionising atoms, or they can be elastically scattered and so change their directions and leave the beam. Lenard produced the beam by means of a cathode ray tube. Today, one would use thermionic emission as the electron source.


Torque Attenuation Helium Sine Librium 


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  1. M. A. Preston, R. K. Bhaduri: Structure of the Nucleus, 2nd ed. ( Addison-Wesley, New York 1975 )Google Scholar
  2. E. Segre: Nuclei and Particles: An Introduction to Nuclear & Subnuclear Physics, 2nd ed. ( Benjamin, Reading 1977 )Google Scholar
  3. W. S. C. Williams: Nuclear and Particle Physics (Oxford University Press (1991)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hermann Haken
    • 1
  • Hans Christoph Wolf
    • 2
  1. 1.Institut für Theoretische PhysikUniversität StuttgartStuttgartGermany
  2. 2.Physikalisches InstitutUniversität StuttgartStuttgartGermany

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