Many-Electron Atoms

  • Hermann Haken
  • Hans Christoph Wolf


The simplest many-electron atom is the helium atom. In the ground state, its two s electrons exactly fill the innermost shell with the principal quantum number n = 1. There is no room for more electrons in this shell, as we shall see below.


Mercury Manganese Helium Vanadium Orthohelium 


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  1. R. D. Cowan: The Theory of Atomic Structure and Spectra ( UC Press, Berkeley 1981 )Google Scholar
  2. G. Herzberg: Atomic Spectra and Atomic Structure ( Dover, New York 1944 )Google Scholar
  3. H. G. Kuhn: Atomic Spectra, 3rd ed. ( Longmans, London 1969 )Google Scholar
  4. H. E. White: An Introduction to Atomic Spectra ( McGraw-Hill, New York 1954 )Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hermann Haken
    • 1
  • Hans Christoph Wolf
    • 2
  1. 1.Institut für Theoretische PhysikUniversität StuttgartStuttgartGermany
  2. 2.Physikalisches InstitutUniversität StuttgartStuttgartGermany

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