Advertisement

Patienten mit besonderen Risiken

  • D. Kettler
  • D. Olthoff
  • W. F. List
  • W. Kröll
  • J. Peters

Zusammenfassung

Die koronare Herzkrankheit (KHK), häufig auch als ischämische Herzerkrankung (international: „ischaemic heart disease“, IHD) bezeichnet, ist in der modernen Industriegesellschaft die am weitesten verbreitete Erkrankung unserer Zeit. Um das Jahr 1980 starben, berechnet auf eine Population von 100 000 Personen zwischen 40 und 69 Jahren, in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland 386 (90), in Großbritannien 398 (130), in den USA 314 (75) und in Japan 65 (24) Menschen an einer KHK (in Klammern: Anzahl der Frauen) [23]. Dabei ist nach kontinuierlichem Anstieg bis etwa Mitte der 70er Jahre eine erhebliche Abnahme der Letalität in den USA und Japan zu verzeichnen, vermutlich als Folge einer breiten Aufklärung über Risikofaktoren und deren Ausschaltung bzw. Behandlung. Eindeutige derartige Risikofaktoren, die die Entwicklung einer KHK begünstigen, sind Zigarettenrauchen, arterieller Hochdruck und Störungen des Lipidstoffwechsels, insbesondere eine Hypercholesterinämie mit überwiegender LDL-Fraktion (LDL: Low-density-Lipoprotein).

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literatur

  1. 1.
    Arkins R, Smessaert AA, Hicks RT (1964) Mortalitiy and morbidity in surgical patients with coronary artery disease. JAMA 190: 485PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bretschneider HJ (1967) Aktuelle Probleme der Koronardurchblutung and des Myocardstoffwechsels. Regensburg Jb ärztl Fortbild XV: 1Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Clements FM, de Bruijn NP (1987) Perioperative evaluation of regional wall motion by transesophageal two-dimensional echocardiography. Anesth Analg 66: 249PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Eerola M, Eerola R, Kaukinen S, Kaukinen L (1980) Risk factors in surgical patients with verified preoperative myocardial infarction. Acta Anaesth Scand. 24: 219PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Epstein SE, Quyyumi AA, Bonow RO (1988) Myocardial ischemia - silent or symptomatic. N Engl J Med 318: 1038PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gattiker R (1983) Anästhesie bei Hypertonie and koronarer Herzkrankheit Refresher Kurs (hrsg. von der Deutschen Akademie für Anästhesiologische Fortbildung), Bd 8, S 60Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Goldmann L, Caldera DL, Nussbaum SR, Southwick FS et al. (1977) Multifactorial index of cardiac risk in non-cardiac surgical procedures. N England J Med 297: 845CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Haagensen R, Steen P (1988) Perioperative myocardial infarction. Br J Anaesth 61: 24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hilfiker O, Larsen R, Sonntag H (1983) Myocardial blood flow and oxygen consumption during halothanenitrous oxide anaesthesia for coronary revascularization. Br J Anaesth 55: 927PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Källerö KS, Bergvist D, Cederholm C, Jonsson K et al. (1984) Arteriosclerosis in popliteal artery trifurcation as a predictor for myocardial infarction after arterial reconstructive operation. Surg Gynecol Obstet 159: 133PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kettler D (1994) „Permessive“ anaemia compared with blood transfusion in patients with cardiac disease — another point of view (editorial). Curr Opin Anaesthesiol 7:1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Knorring J von (1981) Postoperative myocardial infarction: A prospective study in a risk group of surgical patients. Surgery 90: 55Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mangano DT (1980) Monitoring pulmonary arterial pressure in coronary-artery disease. Anesthesiology 53: 364PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mangano DT (1990) Perioperative cardiac morbidity. Anesthesiology 72: 153PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Pedersen T, Eliasen K, Henriksen E (1990) A Prospective study of risk factors and cardiopulmonary complication associated with anaesthesia and surgery: Risk indicators of cardiopulmonary morbidity. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 34: 144PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rao TLK, Jacobs KH, El-Etr AA (1983) Reinfarction following anesthesia in patients with myocardial infarction. Anesthesiology 59: 499PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Reiz S, Balfors E, Sorensen MB, Ariola S et al. (1983) Isoflurane - a powerful coronary vasodilator in patients with coronary artery disease. Anesthesiology 59: 91PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Reiz, S (1988) Myocardial ischaemia associated with general anaesthesia. A review of clinical studies. Br J Anaesth 61: 68PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Saur P, Kettler D, Sonntag H (1991) Hämodynamische Parameter zur Abschätzung des myokardialen Sauerstoffverbrauchs in der Anästhesie. Anaesthesist 40: 7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Schoeppel SJ, Wilkinson C, Waters J, Meyers SN (1983) Factors predisposing to intraoperative myocardial infarction during coronary artery bypass surgery. Mount Sinai J Med 52: 123Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Slogoff S, Keats AS (1985) Does perioperative myocardial infarction lead to postoperative myocardial infarction? Anesthesiology 62: 107PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Slogoff S, Keats AS (1986) Further observations on perioperative myocardial ischemia. Anesthesiology 65: 539PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Smith G (1988) Anaesthesia and myocardial ischaemia (editorial). Br J Anaesth 61: 3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sonntag H, Larsen R, Hilfiker O, Kettler D, Brockschnieder B (1982) Myocardial blood flow and oxygen consumption during high-dose fentanyl anesthesia in patients with coronary artery disease. Anesthesiology 56: 417PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Steen PA, Tinker JH, Tarhan S (1978) Myocardial re-infarction after anesthesia and surgery. JAMA 239: 2566PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Streisand JB, Wong KC (1988) Anaesthesia for coronary artery bypass graft. Br J Anaesth 61: 97PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Tarhan S, Moffitt EA, Taylor WF, Giuliani ER (1972) Myocardial infarction after general anesthesia. JAMA 220: 1451PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Tarnow J (1986) Der Herzinfarktpatient in der operativen Medizin. Anästh Intensivmed 27: 116Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Topkins MJ, Artusio JF (1964) Myocardial infarction and surgery, a five year study. Anesth Analg 43: 716PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Turner E, Braun U, Leitz KH, Hilfiker O (1982) Überwachung der Gesamtsauerstoffaufnahme bei koronarchirurgischen Eingriffen. Anaesthesist 31: 280PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Vormittag E, Kohn P, Zekert F, Grabner H (1975) Risikofaktoren des postoperativen Myokardinfarktes. Dtsch Med Wochensch 100: 1365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 1.
    Bagshaw RJ, Cox RH (1983) Pulmonary vascular response is dependent upon initial state of vasculature. Anesthesiology 58: 205–206PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 2.
    Baum VC, Perloff JK (1993) Anesthetic implications of adults with congenital heart disease. Anesth Analg 76:1342–1358Google Scholar
  34. 3.
    Bender HW, Stewart JR, Merrill WH, Hammon JW, Graham TP (1989) Ten years experience with Senning operation for transposition of the great arteries: physiological results and late follow-up. Ann Thorac Surg 47: 218–223PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 4.
    Berman W, Whitman V, Pierce WS, Waldhausen JA (1961) The development of pulmonary vascular obstructive disease after successful Mustard operation in early infancy. Circulation 58: 181–185Google Scholar
  36. 5.
    Bertranou EG, Blackstone EH, Hazelrig JB (1978) Life expectancy without surgery in tetralogy of Fallot. Am J Cardiol 42: 458–466PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 6.
    Brandenburg RO, Holmes DR, Brandenburg RO, MCGoon DC (1983) Clinical follow-up study of paroxysmal supraventricular tachyarrhythmias after operative repair of a secundum type atrial septal defect in adults. Am J Cardiol 51: 273–276PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 7.
    Bricker JT, Gillette PC, Cooley DA, McNamara DG (1986) Dysrhythmias after repair of atrial septal defect. Texas Heart Inst J 13: 203–208Google Scholar
  39. 8.
    Bruckenberger E, für den Krankenhausausschuß der AGLMB (1992) Zur Situation der Herzchirurgie 1991 in Deutschland. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 40: 234–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 9.
    Burrows FA, Klinck JR, Rabinovitch M, Bohn DJ (1986) Pulmonary hypertension in children: perioperative management. Can Anaesth Soc J 33: 606–628PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 10.
    Campbell M (1970) Natural history of coarctation of the aorta. Br Heart J 32: 633–640PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 11.
    Celano V, Pieroni PR, Morera JA, Roland JM, Gingell RL (1984) Twodimensional echocardiographic examination of mitral valve abnormalities associated with coarctation of the aorta. Circulation 69: 924–932PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 12.
    Colon-Otero G, Gilchrist GS, Holcomb GR, Ilstrup DM, Bowie EJ (1987) Preoperative evaluation of hemostasis in patients with congenital heart disease. Mayo Clin Proc 62: 379–385PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 13.
    Clarkson PM, Brandt PW, Barratt-Boyes BG, Rutherford JD, Kerr AR, Neutze JM (1985) Prosthetic repair of corctation of the aorta with particular reference to dacron onlay patch grafts and late aneurysm formation. Am J Cardiol 56: 342–346PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 14.
    Craig RJ, Selzer A (1968) Natural history and prognosis of atrial septal defect. Circulation 37: 805–815PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 15.
    Dajani AS, Bisno AL, Chung KJ et al. (1990) Prevention of bacterial endocarditis. Recommendations by the American Heart Association. JAMA 264: 2919–2922PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 16.
    Deanfield J, Camm J, Macartney F et al. (1988) Arrhythmia and late mortality after Mustard and Senning operation for transposition of the great arteries. An eight-year prospective study. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 96: 569–576PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 17.
    Deanfield JE, McKenna WC, Hallidie-Smith KA (1980) Detection of late arrhythmia and conduction disturbance after correction of tetralogy of Fallot. Br Heart J 44: 248–253PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 18.
    Finck SJ, Puga FJ, Danielson GK (1988) Pulmonary valve insertion during reoperation for tetralogy of Fallot. Ann Thorac Surg 45: 610–613PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 19.
    Friedli B, Bolens M, Taktat M (1988) Conduction disturbances after correction of tetralogy of Fallot: are electrophysiologic studies of prognostic value? J Am Coll Cardiol 11: 162–165PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 20.
    Garson AJ, Bink-Boelkens M, Hesslein PS, Hordof AJ, Keane JF, Neches WH, Porter CJ (1985) Atrial flutter in the young: a collaborative study of 380 cases. J Am Coll Cardiol 6: 871–878PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 21.
    Garson A, McNamara DG (1985) Sudden death in a pediatric cardiac population, 1958 to 1983: relation to prior arrhythmias J Am Coll Cardiol 5: 134–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 22.
    Hilgenberg JC, McCammon RL, Stoelting RK (1980) Pulmonary and systemic vascular responses to nitrous oxide in patients with mitral stenosis and pulmonary hypertension. Anesth Analg 59: 323–326PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 23.
    Hickey PR (1991) Anesthetic evaluation for the reconstructed heart. Adv Anesth 8: 91–113Google Scholar
  55. 24.
    Jatene AD, Fontes VF, Paulista PP, Souza LCB, Neger F, Galentier M, Sousa JEMR (1976) Anatomic correction of transposition of the great vessels. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 72: 364–369PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 25.
    Roberts JD, Lang P, Bigatello LM, Vlahakes GJ, Zapol WM (1993) Inhaled nitric oxide in congenital heart disease. Circulation 87: 447–453PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 26.
    Katz NM, Blackstone EH, Kirklin JW, Pacifico AD, Bargeron LM (1982) Late survival and symptoms after repair of tetralogy of Fallot. Circulation 65: 403–410PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 27.
    Kirklin JW, Barratt-Boyes BG (1986) Cardiac surgery. Wiley, New York, pp 463–1344Google Scholar
  59. 28.
    Lang P, Chipsman CW, Siden H, Williams RG, Norwood WI, Castaneda AR (1982) Early assessment of hemodynamic status after repair of tetralogy of Fallot. Am J Cardiol 50: 795–799Google Scholar
  60. 29.
    Leech JA, Ernst P, Rogala EJ, Gurr J, Gordon I, Becklake MR (1985) Cardiorespiratory status in relation to mild deformity in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. J Pediatr 49. 106: 143–149Google Scholar
  61. 30.
    Lock JE (1991) The adult with congenital heart disease: cardiac catheterization as a therapeutic intervention. J Am Coll Cardiol 18: 340–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 31.
    Luke MJ, McDonnell EJ (1968) Congenital heart disease and scoliosis. J Pediatr 73: 725–733.Google Scholar
  63. 32.
    Markman PG, Howitt G, Wade AG (1965) Atrial septal defect in the middleaged and elderly. Q J Med 34: 409–426PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 33.
    Mattila S, Merikallio E, Tala P (1979) ASD in patients over 40 years of age. Scand J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 13: 21–24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 34.
    McNamara DG, Latson L (1982) Long-term follow-up of patients with malformations for which definitive surgical repair has been available for 25 years. Am J Cardiol 50: 560–566PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 35.
    McNamara DG, Bricker JT (1989) The adult with post operative congenital heart disease. In: Adams FH, Emmanouilides GC, Riemenschneider TA (eds) Moss’ heart disease in infants, children, and adolescents. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, pp 670–684Google Scholar
  67. 36.
    Morris MJH, McNamara DG (1990) Residua, sequelae, and complications of heart surgery. In: Garson A, Bricker JT, McNamara DG (eds) The science and practice of pediatric cardiology, vol III. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, pp 2024–2043Google Scholar
  68. 37.
    Murphy JG, Gersh BJ, McGoon MD et al. (1990) Longterm outcome after surgical repair of isolated atrial septal defect: follow-up 27 to 32 years. N Engl J Med 323: 1645–1650PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 38.
    Mustard WT (1964) Successful two-stage correction of transposition of the great vessels. Surgery 55: 469–472PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 39.
    Neutze JM, Ishikawa T, Clarkson PM, Calder AL, Barrat-Boyes BG, Kerr AR (1989) Assessment and follow-up of patients with ventricular septal defect and elevated pulmonary vascular resistance. Am J Cardiol 63: 327–331PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 40.
    Paul MH, Miller RA, Potts WJ (1961) Long-term results of aortic pulmonary anastomosis in tetralogy of Fallot: an analysis of the first 100 cases 11 to 13 years after operation. Circulation 23: 525–533PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 41.
    Perkin RM, Anas NG (1984) Pulmonary hypertension in pediatric patients. J Pediatr 105: 511–522PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 42.
    Perloff JK (1987) Potential longevity in unoperated adults. In: Roberts WC (ed) Adult congenital heart disease. Davis, Philadelphia, pp 29–48Google Scholar
  74. 43.
    Perloff JK (1991) Congenital heart disease in adults. A new cardiovascular speciality. Circulation 84: 1881–1890PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 44.
    Perloff JK (1991) Residua and Sequelae. In: PerloffJK, Child JS (eds) Congenital heart disease in adults. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 251–258Google Scholar
  76. 45.
    Perloff JK (1991) Medical center experience. J Am Coll Cardiol 18: 315–318PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 46.
    Perloff JK, Sietsema KE (1991) Response to exercise 65. in cyanotic congenital heart disease. In: Whipp BJ, Wasserman K (eds) Exercise: pulmonary physiology and pathophysiology. Dekker, New York BaselGoogle Scholar
  78. 47.
    Perloff JK, Rosove MH, Child JS, Wright GB (1988) Adults with cyanotic congenital heart disease: hematologic management. Ann Intern Med 109: 406–413PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 48.
    Presbitero P, Demarie D, Villani M et al. (1987) Longterm results (15–30 years) of surgical repair of aortic coarctation. Br Heart J 57: 462–467PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 49.
    Jones K, Higenbottam T, Wallwork J (1989) Pulmonary vasodilatation with prostacyclin in primary and secondary pulmonary hypertension. Chest 96: 784–789PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 50.
    Rogers MF (1985) AIDS in children: a review of the clinical, epidemiologic, and public health aspects. Pediatr Infect Dis 4: 230–236PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 51.
    Ross EA, Perloff JK, Danovitch GM, Child JS, Canobbio MM (1986) Renal function and urate metabolism in late survivors with cyanotic heart disease. Circulation 73: 396–400PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 52.
    Rudolph AM, Yuan S (1966) Response of the pulmonary vasculature to hypoxia and Rion concentration changes. J Clin Invest 45: 399–411PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 53.
    Schulte-Sasse U, Hess W, Tarnow J (1982) Pulmonary vascular response to nitrous oxide in patients with normal and high pulmonary vascular resistance. Anesthesiology 57: 9–13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 54.
    Senning A (1959) Surgical correction of transposition of the great vessels. Surgery 45: 966–970PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 55.
    Sietsema KE, Cooper DM, Perloff JK et al. (1986) Dynamics of oxygen uptake during exercise in adults with cyanotic congenital heart disease. Circulation 73: 1137–1144PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 56.
    Simon AB, Zloto AE (1974) Coarctation of the aorta: longitudinal assessment of operated patients. Circulation 50: 456–461PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 57.
    Somerville J (1992) The problem-an overwiew. In: Hess J, Sutherland GR (eds) Congenital heart disease in adolescents and adults. Kluwer Acad. Publ., Dordrecht Boston London, pp 1–13Google Scholar
  89. 58.
    Stanger P, Lucas RV, Edwards JE (1969) Anatomic factors causing respiratory distress in acyanotic congenital heart disease. Pediatrics 43: 760–769PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 59.
    Taussig HB, Kallman CH, Nagel D, Baumgardner R, Momberger N, Kirk H (1975) Long-time observations on the Blalock-Taussig operation. VIII. 20–28 year follow-up on patients with tetralogy of Fallot. Johns Hopkins Med J 137: 13–19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 60.
    Talner S, McCue HM, Graham TP (1980) Guidelines for insurability of patients with congenital heart disease. Circulation 62: 1419–1424AGoogle Scholar
  92. 61.
    Tawes RL, Berr CL, Aberdeen E (1969) Congenital bicuspid aortic valves asociated with coarctation of the aorta in children. Br Heart J 31: 127–128PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 62.
    Territo MC, Rosove MH, Perloff JK (1991) Cyanotic congenital heart disease: hematologic management, renal function and urate metabolism. In: Perloff JK, Child JS (eds) Congenital heart disease in adults. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 93–103Google Scholar
  94. 63.
    Truesdell SC, Skorton DJ, Lauer RM (1986) Life insurance for children with cardiovascular disease. Pediatrics 77: 687–691PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 64.
    Turkley K, Hanley FL, Verrier ED, Marrick SH, Ebert PA (1988) The Mustard procedure in infants (less than 100 days): ten-year follow-up. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 96: 849–853Google Scholar
  96. 65.
    Vaksman G, Fournier A, Davignon A, Ducharme G, Houyel L, Fouron JC (1990) Frequency and prognosis of arrhythmias after operative „correction“ of tetralogy of Fallot. Am J Cardiol 66: 3466–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 66.
    Vetter VL (1991) Electrophysiologic residua and sequelae. J Am Coll Cardiol 18: 331–333PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 67.
    Von Bermuth G, Ritter DG, Frye RL (1971) Evaluation of patients with tetralogy of Fallot and Potts anastomosis. Am J Cardiol 27: 259–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 68.
    Walsh EP, Rockenmacher S, Keane JF, Hougen TJ, Lock JE, Castaneda AR (1988) Late results in patients with tetralogy of Fallot repaired during infancy. Circulation 77: 1062–1067PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 69.
    Ware JA, Reaves WH, Horak JK, Solis RT (1983) Defective platelet aggregation in patients undergoing surgical repair of cyanotic congenital heart disease. Ann Thorac Surg 36: 289–294PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 70.
    Webb GD, Burrows FA (1991) The risks of noncardiac surgery. J Am Coll Cardiol 18: 323–325PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 71.
    Weidman WH, Blount SG, DuShane JW, Gersony WM, Hayes CJ, Nada AS (1977) Clinical course in ventricular septal defect. Circulation 56: S 56–69Google Scholar
  103. 72.
    Wernovsky G, Hougen TJ, Walsch EP et al. (1988) Midterm results after the arterial switch operation for transposition of the great arteries with intact ventricular septum: clinical, hemodynamic, echocardiographic, and electrophysiologic data. Circulation 77: 1333–1344PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 73.
    Whittenberger JL, McGregor M, Berglund E, Borst HG (1960) Influence of state of inflation of the lung on pulmonary vascular resistance. J Appl Physiol 15: 878–882PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 74.
    Wong KC, Schafer PG, Schultz JR (1993) Hypokalemia and anesthetic implications. Anesth Analg 77: 1238–1260PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 75.
    Zahka K, Horneffer P, Rowe S, Neill CA, Manolio TA, Kidd L, Gardner TJ (1988) Long term valvular function after total repair of tetralogy of Fallot. Relation to ventricular arrhythmias. Circulation 78: III 14–19Google Scholar
  107. 76.
    Ziemer G, Jonas RA, Perry SB, Freed MD, Castaneda AR (1986) Surgery for coarctation of the aorta in the neonate. Circulation 74: 125–131Google Scholar
  108. 1.
    Bilbault P, Boisson-Bertrand D, Duvivier C, Peslin R, Laxenaire MC (1991) Effect of propofol and alfentanil on airway resistance in asthmatics. Ann Fr Anesth Reanim 10 /3: 264–268PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 2.
    Bühlmann AA (1982) Lunge und Atmung. In: Siegen-thaler W (Hrsg) Klinische Pathophysiologie. Thieme, Stuttgart New York, S 816–863Google Scholar
  110. 3.
    Cockcroft DW, Berscheid BA, Murdock KY (1983) Unimodal distribution of bronchial responsiveness to inhaled histamine in a random human population. Chest 83: 751–754PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 4.
    De Coster A, Naceije R, Cornil A (1983) Severe asthma. In: Tinker J, Rapin M (eds) Care of the critically ill patient. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 359–369Google Scholar
  112. 5.
    Gal TJ, Suratt PM (1981) Atropine and glycopyrrolate effects on lung mechanics in normal man. Anesth Analg 60: 85–90PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 6.
    Geiger K (1987) Anaesthesie bei Asthma bronchiale. Anaesthesist 36: 251–266PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 7.
    Guldager H, Sondergaard I, Molke-Jensen F, Cold G (1985) Basophil histamine release in asthma patients after in vitro provocation with althesin and etomidate. Acta Anesthesiol Scand 29 /3: 352–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 8.
    Herzog H (1977) Erkrankungen der Lunge und der Pleura. In: Gross R, Schölmerich P (Hrsg) Lehrbuch der Inneren Medizin, 5. Aufl. Schattauer, Stuttgart New York, S 435–500Google Scholar
  116. 9.
    Kingston HGG, Hirshmann CA (1984) Perioperative management of the patient with asthma. Anesth Analg 63: 844–855PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 10.
    Kröll W, Wisiak UV, List WF (1988) Perioperatives subjektives Angsterleben. Anaesthesist 37: 752–757PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 11.
    Krüger AD, Benad G (1992) Zur Behandlung des Status asthmaticus mit Ketamin — Experimentelle und klinische Erfahrungen. Anesthesiol Reanimatol 17: 109–130Google Scholar
  119. 12.
    List WF, Kröll W, Filzwieser G (1985) Perioperatives Risiko schwerkranker chirurgischer Patienten. Anaesthesist 34: 612–618PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 13.
    List WF, Osswald PM (1987) Komplikationen in der Anästhesie. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York TokyoCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 14.
    Lutz H, Klose R, Peter K (1976) Die Problematik der präoperativen Risikoeinschätzung. Anästh Inform 17: 342Google Scholar
  122. 15.
    Michan JC (1987) Anästhesie bei Patienten mit chronischer Lungenerkrankung. In: Lawin P, Van Aken H (Hrsg) Anästhesie und eingeschränkte Organfunktion. Thieme, Stuttgart New York, S 110–119Google Scholar
  123. 16.
    Pasch T, Kamp HD, Grimm H, Habich G, Petermann H (1986) Der Einfluß von Inhalationsanästhetika auf die Atemmechanik In: Peter K, Brown BR, Martin E, Norlander O (Hrsg) Inhalationsanästhetika — Neue Aspekte. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York Tokyo (Anaesthesiologie und Intensivmedizin, Bd 185, S 127)Google Scholar
  124. 17.
    Pedersen CM (1992) The effect of sedation with propofol on postoperative bronchoconstriction in patients with hyperreactive airway disease. Intensive Care Med 18: 45–46PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 18.
    Santamaria LB, Pratico C, Venuti FS, Lucanto T, David A, Fodale V, Trimarchi G (1991) Sedation with propofol in COPD patients in the ICU. Minerva Anesthesiol 57: 417–422Google Scholar
  126. 19.
    Shnider SM, Papper EM (1962) Anesthesia for the asthmatic patient. Anesthesiology 22: 886CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 20.
    Stein M, Koota GM, Simon M, Frank HA (1962) Pulmonary evaluation of surgical patient. JAMA 181: 765PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 21.
    Shirt JA, Berger JM, Roc SD, Richer SM, Sullivan SF (1981) Safety of enflurane following administration of aminophylline in experimental animals. Anesth Analg 60: 871Google Scholar
  129. 22.
    Wagner PD, Pautzker DR, Iacovoni VE, Tarlin WC, West JB (1978) Ventilation — perfusion inequality in asymptomatic asthma. Am Rev Respir Des 128: 118–521Google Scholar
  130. 1.
    Bihari D, Smithies M, Gimson A, Tinker J (1987) The effects of vasodilatation with prostacyclin on oxygen delivery and uptake in critically ill patients. N Engl J Med 317: 397PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 2.
    Billar TR, Curran RD, Harbrecht BG, Stuehr DJ, Demetris AJ, Simmons RL (1990) Modulation of nitrogen oxide synthesis in vivo: NG-monomethyl-L-arginine inhibits endotoxin-induced nitrite/nitrate biosynthesis while Promoting hepatic damage. J Leukocyte Biol 48: 565Google Scholar
  132. 3.
    Boczkowski J, Dureuil B, Branger C, Pavlovic D, Murciano D, Pariente R, Aubier M (1988) Effects of sepsis on diaphragmatic functions in rats. Am Rev Respir Dis 138: 260PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 4.
    Bolton CF (1993) Neuromuscular abnormalities in critically ill patients. Intens Care Med 19: 309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 5.
    Bolton CF, Young GB, Zachodne DW (1993) The neurological complications of sepsis. Ann Neurol 33: 94PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 6.
    Bone RC, Fisher CJ, Clemmer TP, Slotman GJ, Metz CA, Balk RA and the Methylprednisolone Severe Sepsis Study Group (1987) A controlled clinical trial of high-dose methylprednisolone in the treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock. N Engl J Med 317: 653PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 7.
    Bone RC (1991) The pathogenesis of sepsis. Ann Intern Med 115: 457PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 8.
    Bone RC and the ACCP/SCCM consensus conference commitee members (1992) Definitions for sepsis and organ failure and guidelines for the use of innovative therapies in sepsis. Crit Care Med 101: 1644Google Scholar
  138. 9.
    Cohen RD, Simpson R (1975) Lactate metabolism. Anesthesiology 43: 661PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 10.
    Cohen RD (1989) The pathophysiology of lactic acidosis. Appl Cardiopulmonary Pathophysiol 2: 285Google Scholar
  140. 11.
    Cooper DJ, Hebertson MJ, Werner HA, Walley KR (1993) Bicarbonate does not increase left ventricular contractility during L-lactic acidemia in pigs. Am Rev Respir Dis 148: 317PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 12.
    Corriveau CC, Danner RL (1993) Endotoxin as a therapeutic target in septic shock. Infectious Agents and Disease 2: 35PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 13.
    Cowley RA, Trump BJ (1982) Pathophysiology of shock, anoxia, and ischemia. Williams & Wilkins, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  143. 14.
    Cunnion RE, Schaer GL, Parker MM, Natanson C, Parillo JE (1986) The coronary circulation in human septic shock. Circulation 73: 637PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 15.
    Curtis SE, Cain SM (1992) Regional and systemic oxygen delivery/uptake relations and lactate flux in hyper-dynamic, endotoxin-treated dogs. Am Rev Respir Dis 145: 348PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 16.
    Dantzker DR, Foresman B, Gutierrez G (1991) Oxygen supply and utilization relationship. Am Rev Respir Dis 143: 675PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 17.
    Da Silva AMT, Kaulbach HC, Chuidan FS, Lambert DR, Suffredini AF, Danner RL (1993) Shock and multiple-organ dysfunction after self administration of salmonella endotoxin. N Engl J Med 328: 1457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 18.
    Dhainaut JF, Huyghebaert MF, Monsallier JF et al. (1987) Coronary hemodynamics and myocardial metabolism of lactate, free fatty acids, glucose, and ketones in patients with septic shock. Circulation 75: 533PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 19.
    Diaz PT, Julian MW, Wewers MD, Clanton TL (1993) Tumor necrosis factor and endotoxin do not directly affect in vitro diaphragm function. Am Rev Respir Dis 148: 281PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 20.
    D’Orio V, Fatemi M, Mendes P, Saad G, Marcelle R (1992) Effect of endotoxin insult on critical closure in the canine pulmonary vasculature. Appl Cardiopulmonary Pathophysiol 4: 253Google Scholar
  150. 21.
    Ellrodt AG, Riedinger MS, Kimchi A, Berman DS, Maddahi J, Swan HJC, Murata GH (1985) Left ventricular performance in septic shock: reversible segmental and global abnormalities. Am Heart J 110: 402PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 22.
    Fleck A, Raines G, Hawker F, Trotter J, Wallace PI, Ledingham I McA, Colman KC (1985) Increased vascular permeability: a major cause of hypoalbuminaemia in disease and injury. Lancet 326: 781CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 23.
    Goldfarb RD, Nightingale LM, Kish P, Weber PB, Loegering DJ (1986) Left ventricular function during lethal and sublethal endotoxemia in swine. Am J Physiol 251: H 364Google Scholar
  153. 24.
    Groeneveld ABJ, Bronsveld W, Thijs LG (1986) Hemodynamic determinants of mortality in human septic shock. Surgery 99: 140PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 25.
    Halmagyi DFJ, Kinney JM (1975) Metabolic rate in acute respiratory failure complicating sepsis. Surgery 77: 492PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 26.
    Halmagyi DFJ, Broell J, Gump FE, Kinney JM (1974) Hypermetabolism in sepsis: correlation with fever and tachycardia. Surgery 75: 763PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 27.
    Harris RL, Musher DM, Bloom K et al. (1987) Manifestations of sepsis. Arch Intern Med 147: 1895PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 28.
    Hotchkiss RS, Rust RS, Dence CS et al. (1991) Evaluation of the role of cellular hypoxia in sepsis by the hypoxic marker (18F)-fluoromisonidazole. Am J Physiol 261: R 965Google Scholar
  158. 29.
    Hotchkiss RS, Karl IE (1992) Reevaluation of the role of cellular hypoxia and bioenergetic failure in sepsis. JAMA 267: 1503PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 30.
    Hurtado FJ, Gutierrez AM, Silva N, et al. (1992) Role of tissue hypoxia as the mechanism of lactic acidosis during E. coli endotoxemia. J Appl Physiol 72: 1895PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 31.
    Hussain SNA, Simkus G, Roussos C (1985) Respiratory muscle fatigue: a cause of ventilatory failure in septic shock. J Appl Physiol 58: 2033PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 32.
    Hussain SNA, Roussos C (1985) Distribution of respiratory muscle and organ blood flow during endotoxic shock in dogs. J Appl Physiol 59: 1802PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 33.
    Hutcheson R, Whittle BJR, Boughton-Smith NK (1990) Role of nitric oxide in maintaining vascular integrity in endotoxin-induced acute intestinal damage in the rat. Br J Pharmacol 101: 815PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 34.
    Kilbourn RG, Gross SS, Jubran A, Adams J, Griffith OW, Levi R, Lodato RF (1990) NG-Methyl-L-arginine inhibits tumor necrosis factor-induced hypotension: Implications for the involvement of nitric oxide. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87: 3629PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 35.
    Kilbourn RG, Jubran A, Gross SS, Griffith OW, Levi R, Adams J, Lodato R (1990) Reversal of endotoxinmediated shock by NG-Methyl-L-arginine, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis, Biochem Biophys Res Commun 172: 1132PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 36.
    Kilbourn RG, Griffith OW (1992) Overproduction of nitric oxide in cytokinemediated and septic shock. J Natl Cancer Inst 84: 827PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 37.
    Klabunde RE, Ritger RC (1991) NG-Monomethyl-LArginine ( NMA) restores arterial blood pressure but reduces cardiac output in a canine model of endotoxic shock. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 178: 1135PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 38.
    Kohlshütter B, Baur H, Roth F (1976) Suxamethonium induced hyperkalaemia in patients with severe infra-abdominal infections. Br J Anaesth 48: 557CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 39.
    Lambalgen AA van, Bos GC van den, Thijs LG (1987) Changes in regional plasma extravasation in rats following endotoxin infusion. Microvasc Res 34: 116PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 40.
    Leon A, Boczkowski J, Dureuil B, et al. (1992) Effects of endotoxic shock on diaphragmatic function in mechanically ventilated rats. J Appl Physiol 72: 1466PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 41.
    Meyer JG (1986) Blutgerinnung and Fibrinolyse. Deutscher Ärzte-Verlag, KölnGoogle Scholar
  171. 42.
    Meyer J, Traber LD, Nelson S, Lentz CW, Nakazawa H, Herndon DN, Noda H, Traber DL (1992) Reversal of hyperdynamic response to continuous endotoxin administration by inhibition of NO-Synthesis. J Appl Physiol 73: 324PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 43.
    Michie HR, Manogue KR, Spriggs DR, et al. (1988) Detection of circulating tumor nocrosis factor after endotoxin administration. N Engl J Med 318: 1481PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 44.
    Moncada S, Higgs EA (1991) Endogenous nitric oxide: Physiology, pathology and clinical relevance. Eur J Clin Invest 21: 361PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 45.
    Moncada S (1992) The L-arginine: nitric oxide pathway. Acta Physiol Scand 145: 201PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 46.
    Moore DC (1965) Regional block. Thomas, Springfield/ILLGoogle Scholar
  176. 47.
    Natanson C, Danner RL, Fink MP, Mae Vittie TJ, Walker RI, Conklin JJ, Parillo JE (1988) Cardiovascular performance with E. coli challenges in a canine model of human sepsis. Am J Physiol 254: H 558Google Scholar
  177. 48.
    Nathan C (1992) Nitric oxide as a secretory product of mammalian cells. FASEB J 6: 3051PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 49.
    Nava E, Palmer RMJ, Moncada S (1991) Inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis in septic shock: how much is beneficial. Lancet 338: 1555PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 50.
    Nelson DP, Beyer C, Samsel RW, Wood LDH, Schumacker PT (1987) Pathological suply dependence of 02 uptake during bacteremia in dogs. J Appl Physiol 63: 1487PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 51.
    Parillo JE (1985) Cardiovascular dysfunction in septic shock: new insights into a deadly disease. Intern J Cardiol 7: 314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 52.
    Parillo JE, Bureh C, Shelhammer JH, Parker MM, Natanson C, Schuette W (1985) A circulating myocardial depressant substance in humans with septic shock. J Clin Invest 76: 1539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 53.
    Parillo JE (1993) Pathogenetic mechanisms of septic shock. N Engl J Med 328: 1471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 54.
    Parker JL, Adams HR (1985) Development of myocardial dysfunction in endotoxin shock. Am J Physiol 248:H 818Google Scholar
  184. 55.
    Parker JL, Adams HR (1993) Selective inhibition of endothelium-dependent vasodilator capacity by Escherichia coli endotoxemia. Circ Res 72: 539PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 56.
    Parker MM, Shelhammer JET, Bacharach SL et al. (1984) Profound but reversible myocardial depression in patients with septic shock. Ann Intern Med 100: 483PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 57.
    Petros A, Benett D, Valiance P (1991) Effect of nitric oxide synthase inhibitors on hypotension in patients with septic shock. Lancet 338: 1557PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 58.
    Rubin RN, Colman RW (1992) Disseminated intravascular coagulation. Drugs 44: 963PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 59.
    Samsel RW, Schumaker PT (1991) Oxygen delivery to tissues. Eur Respir J 4: 1258PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 60.
    Shoemaker WC, Appel PL, Kram HB (1992) Role of oxygen debt in the development of organ failure sepsis, and death in high-risk surgical patients. Chest 102: 208PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 61.
    Siegel JH, Creenspan M, Del Guercio LRM (1967) Abnormal vascular tone, defective oxygen transport and myocardial failure in human septic shock. Ann Surg 165: 504PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 62.
    St. John RC, Dorinsky PM (1993) Immunologic therapy for ARDS, septic shock, and multiple organ failure. Chest 103: 932CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 63.
    Stoclet J-C, Fleming I, Gray G et al. (1993) Nitic oxide and endotoxemia. Circulation 87 [Suppl V]: V - 77Google Scholar
  193. 64.
    Suffredini AF, Fromm RE, Parker MM, et al. (1989) The cardiovascular response of normal humans to the administration of endotoxin. N Engl J Med 321: 280PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 65.
    Suttorp N, Hess T, Seeger W, Wilke A, Koob R, Lutz F, Drenkhahn D (1988) Bacterial exotoxins and endothelial permeability for water and albumin in vitro. Am J Physiol 255: C 368Google Scholar
  195. 66.
    Theissen JL, Loick HM, Curry BB, et al. (1991) Time course of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction after endotoxin infusion in unanesthetized sheep. J Appl Physiol 70: 2120PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 67.
    Thiemermann C, Vane J (1990) Inhibition of nitric oxides synthesis reduces the hypotension induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharides in the rat in vivo. Eur J Pharmacol 182: 591PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. 68.
    Toda N, Okamura T (1992) Regulation by nitroxidergic nerve of arterial tone. NIPS 7: 148Google Scholar
  198. 69.
    Tom WW, Villalba M, Szlabick RE, Walsh M, Margherio R, Lucas RJ (1983) Fluorophotometric evaluation of capillary permeability in gram-negative shock. Arch Surg 118: 636PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 70.
    Tracey KJ, Beutler B, Lowry SF et al. (1986) Shock and tissue injury induced by recombinant human chachectin. Science 234: 470PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. 71.
    Tuchschmidt J, Fried J, Astiz M, et al. (1992) Elevation of cardiac output and oxygen delivery improves outcome in septic shock. Chest 102: 216PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. 72.
    Wright CE, Rees DD, Moncada S (1992) Protective and pathological roles of nitric oxide in endotoxin shock. Cardiovasc Res 26: 48PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. 73.
    Zochodne DW, Bolton CF, Wells GA, Gilbert JJ, Hahn AF, Brown JD, Sibbald WA (1987) Critical illness polyneuropathy. A complication of sepsis and multiple organ failure. Brain 110: 819PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. 1.
    Alpert MA, Terry BE, Lambert CR, Kelly DL, Panayiotou H, Mukerji V, Massey CV, Cohen MV (1993) Factors influencing left ventricular systolic function in nonhypertensive morbididly obese patients, and effect of weight loss induced by gastroplasty. Am J Cardiol 71: 733PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 2.
    Amad KH, Brennan JC, Alexander JK (1965) The cardiac pathology of chronic exogenous obesity. Circulation 32: 740PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. 3.
    Bentley JB, Vaughan RW, Gandolfi AJ, Cork RC (1982) Halothane biotransformation in obese and nonobese patients. Anesthesiology 57: 94PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. 4.
    Bosman AR, Goldman JI (1961) The oxygen cost and work of breathing in normal and obese subjects. S Afr J Lab Clin Med 7: 62Google Scholar
  207. 5.
    Cork RC, Vaughan RW, Bentley JB (1981) General anesthesia for morbidly obese patients — an examination of postoperative outcomes. Anesthesiology 54: 310PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. 6.
    Craig DB, Wahba WM, Don HF, Couture JG, Becklake MR (1971) „Closing volume“ and its relation to gas exchange in seated and supine positions. J Appl Physiol 31: 717Google Scholar
  209. 7.
    Gelman S, Laws MD, Potzick J, Strong S, Linman M (1979) Thoracic epidural analgesia in morbidly obesity. Anesthesiology 51: 234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. 8.
    Greenblatt DJ, Abernethy DR, Locniskar A, Harmatz JS, Limjuco RA, Shader RI (1984) Effect of age, gender, and obesity on midazolam kinetics. Anesthesiology 61: 27PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. 9.
    Hackney JD, Crane MG, Collier CC, Rokaw S, Griggs DE (1959) Syndrome of extreme obesity and hypoventilation: studies on etiology. Ann Intern Med 51: 541PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. 10.
    Hedenstierna G, Santesson J, Norlander O (1976) Airway closure and distribution of inspired gas in the extremely obese, breathing spontaneously and during anaesthesia with intermittent positive pressure ventilation. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 20: 334PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. 11.
    Jense HG, Dubin SA, Silversein PI, O’Leary-Escolas U (1991) Effect of obesity on safe duration of apnea in anesthetized humans Anesth Analg 72: 89Google Scholar
  214. 12.
    Kaufman BJ, Ferguson MH, Cherniack RM (1959) Hypoventilation in obesity. Circulation [Suppl 4] 48: 135Google Scholar
  215. 13.
    Lam AA, Grace DM, Penny FJ, Vezina WC (1986) Prophylactic intravenous cimetidine reduces the risk of acid aspiration in morbidly obese patients. Anesthesiology 65: 684PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. 14.
    Naimark A, Cherniack RM (1980) Compliance of the respiratory system and its components in health an obesity. J Appl Physiol 15: 377Google Scholar
  217. 15.
    Neumann GG, Baldwin CC, Petrini AJ, Wise L, Wollman SB (1986) Perioperative management of a 430-Kilogram (946-pound) patient with pickwickian syndrome. Anesth Analg 65: 985CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. 16.
    Peters J, Steinhoff H (1983) Anaesthesieprobleme bei extremer Fettsucht. Anaesthesist 32: 374PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. 17.
    Postlethwait RW, Johnson WD, Durham NC (1972) Complications following surgery for duodenal ulcer in obese patients. Arch Surg 105: 440Google Scholar
  220. 18.
    Rawal N, Sjöstrand U, Christoffersson E, Dahlström B, Arvill A, Rydman H (1984) Comparison of intramuscular and epidural morphine for postoperative analgesia in the grossly obese: Influence on postoperative ambulation and pulmonary function. Anesth Analg 63: 583PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. 19.
    Rochester DF, Enson Y (1979) Current concepts in the pathogenesis of the obesity-hypoventilation syndrome. Am J Med 57: 402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. 20.
    Santesson J (1976) Oxygen transport and venous admixture in the extremely obese. Influence of anaesthesia and artificial ventilation with and without positive endexpiratory pressure. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 20: 387PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. 21.
    Sharp JT, Henry JP, Sweany SK, Meadows WR, Pietras RJ (1964) Effects of mass loading the respiratory system in man. J Appl Physiol 19: 959PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. 22.
    Shenkman, Shir Y, Brodsky JB (1993) Perioperative management of the obese patient. Br J Anaesth 70: 349PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. 23.
    Söderberg M, Thomson D, White T (1977) Respiration, circulation and anaesthetic management in obesity. Investigation before and after jejunoileal bypass. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 21: 55PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. 24.
    Tucker DH, Sicker HO (1960) The effect of change of body position on lung volumes and intrapulmonary gas mixing in patients with obesity, heart failure, and emphysema. Am Rev Respir Dis 82: 787PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. 25.
    Vaughan RW, Wise L (1976) Intraoperative arterial oxygenation in obese patients. Ann Surg 184: 35PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. 26.
    Vaughan RW, Engelhardt RC, Wise L (1974) Postoperative hypoxemia in obese patients. Ann Surg 180: 877PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. 27.
    Vaughan RW, Bauer S, Wise L (1975) Volume and pH of gastric juice in obese patients. Anesthesiology 43: 686PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. 28.
    Vaughan RW, Bauer S, Wise L (1976) Effect of position (semirecumbent versus supine) on postoperative oxygenation in markedly obese subjects. Anesth Analg 55: 37PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. 29.
    Weinstein JA, Matteo RS, Ornstein E, Schwartz AE, Goldstoff M, Thal G (1988) Pharmacodynamics of vecuronium and atracurium in the obese surgical patient. Anesth Analg 67: 1149PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. 30.
    Zerah F, Harf A, Perlemuter L, Lorino H, Lorino A-M, Atlan G (1993) Effects of obesity on respiratory resistance. Chest 103: 1470PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Kettler
  • D. Olthoff
  • W. F. List
  • W. Kröll
  • J. Peters

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations