• A. Zollinger
  • R. Gattiker


Unter dem Begriff Thoraxchirurgie werden Eingriffe an den Lungen, an der Thoraxwand und am Mediastinum zusammengefaßt, wobei die Chirurgie des Herzens und der großen Gefäße in der Regel ausgeklammert werden. Zu den Besonderheiten der Anästhesie in der Thoraxchirurgie zählen v. a. die speziellen pathophysiologischen Probleme, die notwendigen Lagerungen, die technischen Erfordernisse wie die endobronchiale Intubation, die Einlungenbeatmung und weitere spezielle Beatmungsformen sowie die intra- und postoperativ einzusetzenden apparativen Überwachungsverfahren.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Aitkenhead AR (1987) Anaesthesia for oesophageal surgery. In: Gothard JWW (ed) Thoracic anaesthesia. Bailliere Tindall, London Philadelphia Toronto Sidney Tokyo (Bailliere’s clinical anaesthesiology, vol 1, no 1, pp 181–206 )Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Barker SJ, Clarke C, Trivedi N, Hyatt J, Fynes M, Roessler P (1993) Anesthesia for thoracoscope laser ablation of bullous emphysema. Anesthesiology 78: 44–50PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Benumof JL (1979) Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction and sodium nitroprusside infusion. Anesthesiology 50: 481–483PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Benumof JL (1986) Anaesthesia for thoracic surgery: recent advances. Can Anaesth Soc J 33: 28–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Benumof JL (1986) Isoflurane anesthesia and arterial oxygenation during one-lung ventilation. Anesthesiology 64: 419–422PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Benumof JL (1987) Anesthesia for thoracic surgery. Chapt. 11: Conventional and differential lung management. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 271–287Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Benumof JL, Augustine SD, Gibbons JA (1987) Halothane and isoflurane only slightly impair arterial oxygenation during one-lung ventilation in patients undergoing thoracotomy. Anesthesiology 67: 910–915PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Benumof JL, Wahrenbrock EA (1975) Local effects of anesthetics on regional hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. Anesthesiology 43: 525–532PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bjertnes LJ (1978) Hypoxia-induced pulmonary vasoconstriction in man: inhibition due to diethyl ether and halothane anaesthesia. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 22: 570–588CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bolooki H, Schwartmann RJ (1978) High dose steroids for the perioperative management of patients with myasthenia gravis undergoing thymectomy. A preliminary report. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 75: 754–757PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bolton FG (1985) Disseminated intravascular coagulation. Int Anesthesiol Clin 23 /2: 89–101PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bradner NH, Sandler AN, Koren G et al. (1990) Lumbar epidural fentanyl infusions for postthora-cotomy patients: analgesic, respiratory, and pharmacologic effects. J Cardiothorac Vase Anesth 4: 543–551CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bradshaw EG, Thomspon EM, Kerr JH (1987) Effects of changing Fi02 between 50 and 100% during one-lung anaesthesia in man (zit. in [64], pp 74)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bromage PR, Shibata HR, Willoughby HW (1971) Influence of prolonged epidural blockade on blood sugar and Cortisol responses to operations upon the upper part of the abdomen and the thorax. Surg Gynecol Obstet 132: 1051–1056PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bromage PR, Camporesi E, Chesnut D (1980) Epidural narcotics for postoperative analgesia. Anesth Analg 59: 473–480PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Brown SE, Linden GS, King RR et al. (1983) Effect of verapamil on pulmonary haemodynamics during hypo-xaemia at rest, and during exercise in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thorax 38: 840–844PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Burton NA, Watson DC, Brodsky JB, Mark JB (1983) Advantages of a new Polyvinylchloride double lumen tube in thoracic surgery. Ann Thorac Surg 36: 78–84PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Buzello W, Noeldge G, Krieg N, Brobmann GF (1986) Vecuronium for muscle relaxation in patients with myasthenia gravis. Anesthesiology 64: 507–509PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Carlens E (1949) A new flexible double-lumen catheter for bronchospirometry. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 18: 742–746Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Carlon GC, Cole R, Klain M, McCormack P (1980) High frequency positive pressure ventilation in management of a patient with bronchopleural fistula. Anesthesiology 52: 160–162PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Cohen E, Thys DM, Eisenkraft JB, Kaplan JA (1985) PEEP during one-lung anesthesia improves oxygenation in patients with low arterial P02. Anesth Analg 64: 201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Conacher ID (1987) Pain relief following thoracic surgery. In: Gothard JWW (ed) Thoracic anaesthesia. Bailliere Tindall, London Philadelphia Toronto Sidney Tokyo (Bailliere’s clincial anaesthesiology, vol 1, no 1, pp 233–257 )Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cooper JD, Patterson GA, Grossman R, Maurer J and the Toronto Lung Transplant Group (1989) Double-lung transplant for advanced chronic obstructive lung disease. Am Rev Respir Dis 139: 303–307PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Cotton BR, Smith G (1984) The lower oesophageal sphincter and anaesthesia. Br J Anaesth 56: 37–46PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Crafoord C (1940) Pulmonary ventilation and anesthesia in major chest surgery. J Thorac Surg 9: 237–253Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    D’Empaire G, Hoaglin DC, Perlo VP, Pontoppidan H (1985) Effect of prethymectomy plasma exchange on postoperative respiratory function in myasthenia gravis. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 89: 592–596PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Daly PO, Dembitisky WP, Peterson KL et al. (1987) Modifications of techniques and early results of pulmonary thromboendarterectomy for chronic pulmonary embolism. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 93: 221–233Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Dittmann M (1982) Thorakale Epiduralanalgesie. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Domino KB, Wetstein L, Glassner SA et al. (1983) Influence of mixed venous blood oxygen tension (pv02) on blood flow to atelectatic lung. Anesthesiology 59: 428–434PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Dubois F, Icard P, Berthelot G, Levard H (1990) Coelioscopic cholecystectomy. Preliminary report of 36 cases. Ann Surg 211: 60–62PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Dunne NM, Gillbe CE (1987) Endobronchial apparatus and its intraoperative management. In: Gothard JWW (ed) Thoracic anaesthesia. Bailliere Tindall, London Philadelphia Toronto Sidney Tokyo (Bailliere’s clincial anaesthesiology, vol 1, no 1, pp 79–98 )Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Egan TM, Kaiser LR, Cooper JD (1989) Lung transplantation. Curr Probl Surg 26: 712CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Eisenkraft JB (1987) Myasthenia gravis and thymic surgery–anaesthetic considerations. In: Gothard JWW (ed) Thoracic anaesthesia. Bailliere Tindall, London Philadelphia Toronto Sidney Tokyo (Bailliere’s clincial anaesthesiology, vol 1, no 1, pp 133–162 )Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Eisenkraft JB, Papatestas AE, Sivak M (1984) Neuromuscular effects of halogenated agents in patients with myasthenia gravis. Anesthesiology 61 [Suppl]: A307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    El-Baz N (1987) High frequency ventilation for thoracic surgery. In: Gothard JWW (ed) Thoracic anaesthesia. Baillière Tindall, London Philadelphia Toronto Sidney Tokyo (Baillière’s clincial anesthesiology, vol 1, no 1, pp 99–105 )Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Engel AG (1984) Myasthenia gravis and myasthenic syndromes. Neurology 16: 516–534Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Evans JM, Davies WL, Wise CC (1984) Lower oesophageal contractility: a new monitor of anaesthesia. Lancet 1: 1151–1154PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Feneck R (1987) Anaesthesia for diagnostic thoracic surgical procedures. In: Gothard JWW (ed) Thoracic anaesthesia. Baillière Tindall, London Philadelphia Toronto Sidney Tokyo (Baillière’s clincial anaesthesiol-ogy, vol 1, no 1, pp 15–31 )Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Ferretti F, Crestani S, Rodriguez NJ, Tosi C, Martinoli S (1987) Peut-on employer l’analgésie épidurale thoracale haute dans les soins intensifs postopératoires du myasthénique après thymectomie transsternale? Schweiz Med Wochenschr 117: 438–444PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Fiser WP, Friday CD, Read RC (1982) Changes in arterial oxygenation and pulmonary shunt during thoracotomy with endobronchial anesthesia. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 83: 523–531PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Fletcher R, Nordstrom L (1986) The effects on gas exchange of a large mediastinal tumor. Anaesthesia 41: 1135–1138PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Foldes FF, Nagashima H (1984) Myasthenia gravis and anaesthesia. In: Oyama T (ed) Endocrinology and the anaesthetist. Elsevier, New York (Monographs in anaesthesiology 11, pp 171–203 )Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Furman WR, Summer WR, Kennedy PP, Silvester JT (1982) Comparison of effects of dobutamine, dopamine and isoproterenol on hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction in the pig. Crit Care Med 10: 371–374PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Goldman L, Caldera DL, Nusbaum SR et al. (1977) Multifactorial index of cardiac risk in noncar-diac surgical procedures. N Engl J Med 297: 845–850PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Goldstraw P (1987) Postoperative management of the thoracic surgical patient. In: Gothard JWW (ed) Thoracic anaesthesia. Baillière Tindall, London Philadelphia Toronto Sidney Tokyo (Baillière’s clincial anaesthesiology, vol 1, no 1, pp 207–231 )Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Gothard JWW, Macrae DJ (1987) Thoracic anaesthetic problems. In: Gothard JWW (ed) Thoracic anaesthesia. Baillière Tindall, London Philadelphia Toronto Sidney Tokyo (Baillière’s clincial anaesthesiology, vol 1, no 1, pp 107–131 )Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Gracey DR, Howard FM, Divertie MB (1984) Plasmapheresis in the treatment of ventilator-dependent myasthenia gravis patients. Report of four cases. Chest 85: 739–743Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Griffith HR, Johnson GE (1942) The use of curare in general anesthesia. Anesthesiology 3: 418–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Hall GM (1985) The anaesthetic modification of the endocrine and metabolic response to surgery. Ann R Coll Surg Engl 67: 25–29PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Härtung HJ, Strauss KM, Kramner L, Funk S (1993) The influence of N20 on pulmonary shunt during one-lung anaesthesia in pigs. Eur J Anaesth 10: 55Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Hasnain JU, Krasna MJ, Barker SJ, Weiman DS, Whitman GJR (1992) Anesthetic considerations for thoracoscopic procedures. J Cardiothorac Vase Anesth 6: 624–627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Haydock DA, Trulock EP, Kaiser LR et al. (1992) Lung transplantation. Analysis of thirty-six consecutive procedures performed over a twelve-month period. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 103: 329–340PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Hedenstierna G, Tokics L, Strandberg A, Lundquist H, Brismar B (1986) Correlation of gas exchange impairment to development of atelectasis during anaesthesia and muscle paralysis. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 30: 183–190PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Hennek K, Sydow FW (1984) Die thorakale Periduralanästhesie zur intra-und postoperativen Analgesie bei Lungenresektion. Reg Anaesth 7: 115–124PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Herrmann C, Lindstrom JM, Keesey JC, Mulder DG (1985) Myasthenia gravis–current concepts. West J Med 142: 797–809PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Hsieh CM, Mishkel G, Rakowski H et al. (1989) Production and reversibility of right ventricular hypertrophy and right ventricular failure in dogs. J Surg Res 47: 304–308PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Hucker J, Bhatnagar NK, Al-Jilaihawi AN, Forester- Wood CP (1991) Thoracoscopy in the diagnosis and management of recurrent pleural effusions. Ann Thorac Surg 52: 1145–1147PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Inoue H, Shohtsu A, Ogawa J, Kawada S, Koide S (1982) New device for one-lung anesthesia: endotracheal tube with movable blocker. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 83: 940–941PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Jocobaeus HC (1910) Über die Möglichkeit, die Zysto-skopie bei Untersuchungen seröser Höhlungen anzuwenden. MMW 57: 2090–2092Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Kaiser LR, Pasque MK, Trulock EP, Low DE, Dresler CM, Cooper JD (1991) Bilateral sequential lung transplantation: the procedure of choice for double-lung replacement. Ann Thorac Surg 52: 438–446PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Katz JA, Laverne RG, Fairley HB, Thomas AN (1982) Pulmonary oxygen exchange during endobronchial anesthesia. Anesthesiology 56: 164–171PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Kehlet H (1978) Influence of epidural analgesia on the endocrine metabolic response to surgery. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand [Suppl] 70: 39–42Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Kerr JH (1972) Physiological aspects of one-lung (endobronchial) anesthesia. Int Anesth Clin 10: 61–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Kerr JH (1987) Ventilation and blood flow during thoracic surgery. In: Gothard JWW (ed) Thoracic anaesthesia. Bailliere Tindall, London Philadelphia Toronto Sidney Tokyo (Bailliere’s clincial anaesthesiology, vol 1, no 1, pp 61–78 )Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Kerr JH, Crampton-Smith A, Prys-Roberts C, Meloche R, Foex P (1974) Observations during endobronchial anaesthesia II. Oxygenation. Br J Anaesth 46: 84–92PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Kirsh MM, Rotman H, Behrendt DM, Orringer MB, Sloan M (1975) Complications of pulmonary resection. Ann Thorac Surg 20: 215–236PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Kramer MR, Marshall SE, McDougall IR et al. (1991) The distribution of ventilation and perfusion after single-lung transplantation in patients with pulmonary fibrosis and pulmonary hypertension. Transplant Proc 23: 1215–1216PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Landreneau RJ, Herlan DB, Johnson JA, Boley TM, Nawarawong W, Ferson PF (1991) Thoracoscopic neodymium-yttrium-aluminium garnet laser-assisted pulmonary resection. Ann Thorac Surg 52: 1176–1178PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Lindstrom JM, Seybold ME, Lennon VA, Wittingham S, Duane DD (1976) Antibody to acetylcholine receptor in myasthenia gravis: prevalence, clinical correlates and diagnostic value. Neurology 26: 1054–1059PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Lorenz W, Doenicke A (1985) Anaphylactoid reactions and histamine release by barbiturate induction agents: clinical relevance and patho-mechanisms. Anesthesiology 63: 351–352PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Mackie AM, Watson CB (1984) Anaesthesia and mediastinal masses. A case report and review of the literature. Anaesthesia 39: 899–903PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Macklem PT (1979) Rib cage-diaphragm interaction. Am Rev Respir Dis 119 (Pt 2): 27–29PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    McFarlane PA, Mortimer AJ, Ryder WA et al. (1985) Effects of dopamine and dobutamien on distribution of pulmonary blood flow during lobar ventilation hypoxia and lobar collapse in dogs. Eur J Clin Invest 15: 53–59PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Millar FA, Hutchison GL, Wood RAB (1992) Anaesthesia for thoracoscopic pleurectomy and ligation of bullae. Anaesthesia 47: 1060–1062PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Morgan C (1987) Preoperative assessment of the thoracic surgical patient. In: Gothard JWW (ed) Thoracic anaesthesia. Bailliere Tindall, London Philadelphia Toronto Sidney Tokyo (Bailliere’s clincial anaesthesiology, vol 1, no 1, pp 1–13 )Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Nomoto Y (1987) Preoperative pulmonary blood flow and one-lung anaesthesia. Can Anaesth Soc J 34: 447–449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Obara M, Tanaka O, Hoshino Y, Kaetsu H, Maekawa N, Iwai S (1986) One-lung ventilation. The effect of positive endexpiratory pressure to the non-dependent and dependent lung. Anaesthesia 41: 1007–1010PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Pandit SK, Kothary S, Orringer M (1982) Preoperative anticholinesterase therapy in myasthenic patients for thymectomy. Anaesthesia (Suppl: special edn)Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Patterson GA, Cooper JD, Dark JH et al. (1988) Experimental and clinical double lung transplantation. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 95: 70–74PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Peltola K (1983) Central haemodynamics and oxygenation during thoracic anaesthesia. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand [Suppl] 77 /27: 1–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Perissat J, Collet DR, Belliard R (1989) Gallstones: Laparoscopic treatment, intracorporeal lithotripsy followed by cholecystostomy or cholecystectomy - a personal technique. Endoscopy 21: 373–374PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Rees DI, Gaines GY (1984) One-lung anesthesia–a comparison of pulmonary gas exchange during anesthesia with ketamine or enflurane. Anesth Analg 63: 521–525PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Rehder K, Hatch DJ, Sessler AD, Fowler WS (1972) The function of each lung of anesthetized and paralyzed man during mechanical ventilation. Anesthesiology 37: 16–26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Reinhart K, Föhring U, Kersting TH, Dennhardt R, Schäfer M (1986) Beeinflussung des Verhältnisses von Sauerstoffangebot und Sauerstoffverbrauch durch die Sympathikusblockade bei thorakaler Epiduralanal-gesie. Anaesthesist 35: 130Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Reynolds F (1984) Bupivacaine and intravenous regional anaesthesia. Anaesthesia 39: 105–107PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Rich GF, Murphy GD, Roos CM, Johns RA (1993) Inhaled nitric oxide. Selective pulmonary vasodilation in cardiac surgical patients. Anesthesiology 78: 1028–1035PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Rossaint R, Falke KJ, Lopez F, Slama K, Pison U, Zapol WM (1993) Inhaled nitric oxide for the adult respiratory distress syndrome. N Engl J Med 328: 399–405PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Sauerbruch F (1904) Zur Pathophysiologic des offenen Pneumothorax und die Grundlagen meines Verfahrens zu seiner Ausschaltung. Mitteilungen Grenzgeb Med Chir 13: 399–482Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Scheller MS, Kriett JM, Smith CM, Jamieson SW (1992) Airway management during anesthesia for double-lung transplantation using a single-lumen endotracheal tube with enclosed bronchial blocker. J Cardiothorac Vase Anesth 6: 204–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Schmid ER (1985) Beatmungskonzepte–Variationen einer Idee. Swiss Med 11 /7: 31–50Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Seeling W, Ahnefeld FW, Grünert A et al. (1986) Aorto-femoraler Bifurkationsbypass. Der Einfluß des Anaesthesieverfahrens (NLA, thorakale kontinuierliche Katheterperiduralanaesthesie) auf Kreislauf, Atmung und Stoffwechsel. Anästhesist 35: 80–92Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Selvin BL (1981) Cancer chemotherapy: implications for the anesthesiologist. Anesth Analg 60: 425–434PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Shah JB (1990) Two innovative ways to seek higher Pa02 during one lung anaesthesia. J Cardiothorac Anesth 6 [Suppl 3]: 12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Simpson BR, Parkhouse J, Marshall R, Lambrechts W (1961) Extradural analgesia and the prevention of postoperative respiratory complications. Br J Anaesth 33: 628–641PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Smiley RM, Navedo AT, Kirby T, Schulman LL (1991) Postoperative independent lung ventilation in a single-lung transplant recipient. Anesthesiology 74: 1144–1148PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Smith GB, Hirsch NP, Ehrenwerth J (1986) Placement of double-lumen endobronchial tubes. Correlation between clinical impressions and bronchoscopic findings. Br J Anaesth 58: 1317–1320PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Swenson JD, Michael Hullander R, Bready RJ, Leivers D (1994) A comparison of patient controlled epidural analgesia with sufentanil by the lumbar versus thoracic route after thoracotomy. Anesth Analg 78: 215–218PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Takasaki M, Takahashi T (1980) Respiratory function during cervical and thoracic extradural analgesia in patients with normal lungs. Br J Anaesth 52: 1271–1275PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Toomes H (1993) Minimally invasive surgery in the thorax. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 41: 137–139PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Torda TA, Mc Cullough CH, O’Brien DH, Wright JS, Horton DA (1974) Pulmonary venous admixture during one-lung anaesthesia. Anaesthesia 29: 272–279PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Toronto Lung Transplant Group (1986) Unilateral lung transplantation for pulmonary fibrosis. N Engl J Med 314: 1140–1145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Wakabayashi A, Brenner M, Kayaleh R et al. (1991) Thoracoscopic carbon dioxide laser treatment of bullous emphysema. Lancet 337: 881–883PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Werner O, Malmkvist G, Beckmann A, Stahle S, Nordström L (1984) Gas exchange and haemodynamics during thoracotomy. Br J Anaesth 56: 1343–1349PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Whiting WC, Sandler AN, Lau LC et al. (1988) Analgesic and respiratory effects of epidural sufentanil in patients following thoracotomy. Anesthesiology 69: 36–43PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Wulff KE, Aulin I (1972) The regional lung function in the lateral decubitus position during anesthesia and operation. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 16: 195–205PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Zollinger
  • R. Gattiker

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations