The regular, strictly periodic structure of the crystal discussed in the preceding chapters is just an idealized picture. In nature, even under conditions of ideal thermodynamic equilibrium, crystals must show various deviations from this structure, which are called crystal lattice defects. Equilibrium lattice defects should by no means be interpreted as crystal defects. They can be regarded as elementary excitations of the ground state of the crystal, being just as inherent in the crystal as phonons or electrons, etc. While phonons and electrons are elementary excitations in the phonon and electron subsystems of a crystal, which were considered in Chaps. 3,4, lattice defects are elementary excitations in the atomic subsystem of a crystal, whose ground state was described in Chap. 1.
KeywordsEntropy Vortex Quartz Anisotropy Zirconium
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