Atoms in Superintense Laser Fields
In this chapter we review works devoted to the dynamics of an atom in a superintense radiation field. The atomic field strength was defined in Sect. 9.1. A superintense field, according to this definition, is stronger than an atomic field. However, the different definitions given in Sect. 9.1 are intended only for low-frequency electromagnetic fields. For example, F a = 5.14 x 109 V/cm for ground state hydrogen atom if the radiation frequency is equal to zero. Similarly, for hydrogen atom excited states with principal quantum number n the atomic field strength is F a(n) = F a/n 4 only in the case of a constant electric field. Also, these definitions are valid only for small orbital momenta of the considered states. Increased radiation frequency and higher orbital momenta stabilize an atom. Let us first consider this stabilization qualitatively.
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