• Nikolai B. Delone
  • Vladimir P. Krainov
Part of the Atoms+Plasmas book series (SSAOPP, volume 13)


Ionization Rate Resonance Ionization Electron Binding Energy Intermediate Resonance Tunneling Ionization 
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The ionization of a quantum system (atoms, molecules, ions) is called nonlinear if the condition ω < E i is fulfilled, where ω is the photon energy of radiation (or frequency) and E i is the binding energy of the outermost electron in this system. In this text we will focus only on nonlinear ionization of atomic quantum systems. Such an ionization of an atom, however, contradicts the Einstein relation for the atomic photoeffect, which is given by the inequality of opposite sign, i.e., ω > E i. However, multiphoton ionization, > E i (K is an integer) is in agreement with Einstein’s relation.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nikolai B. Delone
    • 1
  • Vladimir P. Krainov
    • 2
  1. 1.General Physics InstituteRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia
  2. 2.Department of Theoretical PhysicsMoscow Institute of Physics and TechnologyDolgopzudny Moscow RegionRussia

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