Advertisement

High Energy Probes of Semiconductors: X-Rays

  • Marvin L. Cohen
  • James R. Chelikowsky
Part of the Springer Series in Solid-State Sciences book series (SSSOL, volume 75)

Abstract

For structural studies, the most useful probe of the solid state is the high energy photon. Only short wavelength photons can be used to determine the crystal structure of an ordered material, and it is not possible to give a full description of the electronic structure of a solid without some knowledge of the atomic coordinates. Fortunately, using computer automated x-ray probing devices, it is almost a routine task to obtain accurate crystal structure information. In fact, with new bright sources of x-rays, it may also become possible to obtain surface structural information. Another useful function of x-rays is to probe the valence charge density of a semiconductor. The experimental determination of valence charge densities is difficult but not impossible, and some very good data exist for diamond and zinc-blende semiconductors. Finally, x-rays can be used to monitor temperature effects by studying Debye-Waller factors.

Keywords

Charge Density Waller Factor Scattering Factor Bond Charge Valence Charge Density 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 7.1
    W.L. Bragg: Proc. Cambridge Phil. Soc. 17, 43 (1913)MATHGoogle Scholar
  2. 7.2
    C Kittel: Introduction to Solid State Physics, 6th ed. (Wiley, New York, 1986)Google Scholar
  3. 7.3
    N.W. Ashcroft, N.D. Mermin: Solid State Physics (Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York 1976)Google Scholar
  4. 7.4
    M.J. Buerger: Contemporary Crystallography (McGraw-Hill, New York 1970)Google Scholar
  5. 7.5
    B.W. Batterman, D.R. Chipman, J.J. De Marco: Phys. Rev. 122, 68 (1961)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 7.6
    S. Gottlicher, E. wolfel: Z. Electrochemie 63, 891 (1959)Google Scholar
  7. 7.7
    R. Chen, P. Trucano, R.F. Stewart: Acta Crystallogr. Sect. A33, 823 (1977)Google Scholar
  8. 7.8
    N.A.W. Holzwarth, S.G. Louie, S. Rabii: Phys. Rev. B26, 5382 (1982)Google Scholar
  9. 7.9
    M.L. Cohen: Science 234, 549 (1986)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 7.10
    J.F. Vetelino, S.P. Gaur, S.S. Mitra: Phys. Rev. B5, 2360 (1972)Google Scholar
  11. 7.11
    J.B. Roberto, B.W. Batterman, D.J. Keating: Phys. Rev. B9, 2590 (1974)Google Scholar
  12. 7.12
    J.C. Phillips: Phys. Lett. 37A, 434 (1971)Google Scholar
  13. 7.13
    J.R. Chelikowsky, M.L. Cohen: Phys. Rev. Lett. 33, 1339 (1974)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 7.14
    H. Brooks, S.C. Yu: Ph.D. Thesis of S.C. Yu, Harvard University, 1967Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marvin L. Cohen
    • 1
  • James R. Chelikowsky
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PhysicsUniversity of California, and Materials and Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley LaboratoryBerkeleyUSA
  2. 2.Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials ScienceUniversity of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA

Personalised recommendations