Coagulation Treatment and Surgery in Retinoblastoma

  • Elmar P. Messmer
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)


Photo- and cryocoagulation in eyes with retinoblastoma are used for small tumors not affecting the optic nerve or macular area and may help to avoid radiation treatment in selected cases. Surgical removal of the eye is indicated if there is no hope of useful vision even with conservative treatment. Retinoblastoma requires stage-related treatment and the aforementioned treatment techniques should be given strong consideration in appropriate cases in view of the possible side-effects of radiation therapy. However, as most patients present with advanced disease and in view of the necessity to preserve at least some vision in bilaterally affected patients, these treatment modalities are most often used in conjunction with radiation treatment.


Retinal Detachment Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment Neovascular Glaucoma Intraocular Tumor Bilateral Retinoblastoma 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abramson DH, Ellsworth RM (1980) The surgical management of retinoblastoma. Ophthalmic Surg 11:596–598PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Abramson DH, Marks RF, Ellsworth RM, Tretter P, Kitchin D (1982a) The management of unilateral retinoblastoma without primary enucleation. Arch Ophthalmol 100:1249–1252PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Abramson DH, Ellsworth RM, Rozakis GW (1982b) Cryotherapy for retinoblastoma. Arch Ophthalmol 100:1253–1256PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Abramson DH, Notterman RB, Ellsworth RM, Tretter P, Kitchin D (1983) Retinoblastoma treated in infants in the first six months of life. Arch Ophthalmol 101:1362–1366PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bedford MA, Bedotto C, MacFaul PA (1971) Retinoblastoma. A study of 139 cases. Br J Ophthalmol 55:19–27PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Gill W, Fraser J, Carter DC (1968) Repeated freeze-thaw cycles in cryosurgery. Nature 219:410–413PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Heinrich T (1989) Das Metastasierungsrisiko bei Retinoblastom. Thesis, Universität, Essen (FRG)Google Scholar
  8. Höpping W, Bunke-Schmidt A (1986) Light coagulation and cryotherapy. In: Biodi FC (ed) Retinoblastinoma. Churchill Livingstone, New York (contemporary issues in ophthalmology, vol 2)Google Scholar
  9. Höpping W, Meyer-Schwickerath G (1964) Light coagulation treatment in retinoblastoma. In: Boniuk M (ed) Ocular and adnexal tumors. New and controversai aspects. C.V. Mosby, St. Louis, pp 192–196Google Scholar
  10. Kennedy RE (1965) The effect of early enucleation on the orbit. Am J Ophthalmol 60:277–306PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Kennedy RE (1973) Growth retardation and volume determinations of the anophthalmic orbit. Am J Ophthalmol 76:294–302PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Lincoff H, McLean J, Long R (1967) The cryosurgical treatment of intraocular tumors. Am J Ophthalmol 63:389–399PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Margo C, Hidayat AA, Marshall CF, Renaldo DP (1983) Cryotherapy and photocoagulation in the management of retinoblastoma. Treatment failure and unusual complications. Ophthalmic Surg 14:336–342PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Messmer EP, Sauerwein W, Heinrich T et al. (1990) New and recurrent tumor foci following local treatment as well as external beam radiation in eyes of patients with hereditary retinoblastoma. Graefe’s Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol (to be published)Google Scholar
  15. Meyer-Schwickerath G (1961) The preservation of vision by treatment of intraocular tumors with light coagulation. Arch Ophthalmol 66:458–466PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Meyer-Schwickerath G, Helferich E (1958) Zur Therapie des Retinoblastoms. Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd 132:806–816Google Scholar
  17. Murphree AL (1989) Retinoblastoma. In: Ryan S (ed) Retina. Mosby, St. Louis, pp 517–556Google Scholar
  18. Schipper J (1980) Retinoblastoma. A medical and experimental study. Thesis, Rijks-Universität, Utrecht (NL)Google Scholar
  19. Shields JA, Augsburger JJ (1981) Current approaches to the diagnosis and management of retinoblastoma. Surv Ophthalmol 25:347–372PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Shields JA, Shields CL (1989) Decreasing frequency of enucleation in patients with retinoblastoma. Am J Ophthalmol 108:185–188PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Shields JA, Parsons H, Shields CL, Giblin ME (1989) The role of cryotherapy in the management of retinoblastoma. AM J Ophthalmol 108:260–264PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Soll DB (1982) The anophthalmic socket. Ophthalmology 89:407–423PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. von Graefe A (1864) Zur Casuistic der Tumoren. Graefe’s Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 10:176–220Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elmar P. Messmer
    • 1
  1. 1.Eye ClinicUniversity of ZürichZürichSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations