Transitional Cell Carcinoma, Bladder, Rat
The earliest transitional cell carcinoma cannot be detected with the naked eye but its presence and papillary appearance on the luminal surface of the urinary bladder may be visualized with a stereomicroscope. As the cauliflower-like tumors reach 1 cm or greater in diameter, areas of necrosis and hemorrhage may be present. The tumors are frequently multifocal but may become confluent and grossly fill the lumen of the bladder. The texture of the mass varies from soft to firm depending upon the amount of connective tissue present. Invasion of the subepithelial tissue and penetration of the muscle layers may be visible upon dissection. Metastases may occur in paraaortic lymph nodes and the lung, but are rare.
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