Pheochromocytoma, Adrenal Medulla, Rat

  • John D. Strandberg
Part of the Monographs on Pathology of Laboratory Animals book series (LABORATORY)


Medullary tumors may be too small to alter the gross appearance of the glands, or they may cause unilateral or bilateral enlargement. The cut surface of the medulla may have a nodular outline and may be fleshy white or reddish-brown due to an extensive vascular network in the tumor. Metastases of malignant pheochromocytomas occur rarely and are usually discovered only upon microscopic examination (Coleman et al. 1977; Anderson and Capen 1978; Goodman et al. 1979; Altman and Goodman 1979).


Medullary tumors medullary nodules medullary adenomas medullary secretory cell tumors 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Altman NH, Goodman DG (1979) Neoplastic diseases. In: Baker HJ, Lindsey JR, Weisbroth SH (eds) The laboratory rat, vol 1. Academic, New York, chap 13Google Scholar
  2. Anderson MP, Capen CC (1978) The endocrine system. In: Benirschke K, Garner FM, Jones TC (eds) Pathology of laboratory animals. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, vol 1, chap 6Google Scholar
  3. Bioassay of Reserpine for Possible Carcinogenicity. (1980) Natl Cancer Inst Carcinogenesis Technical Report Series No.193, NTP No. 80–16Google Scholar
  4. Boorman GA, Hollander CF (1973) Spontaneous lesions in the female WAG/Rij ( Wistar) rat. J Gerontol 28: 152–159Google Scholar
  5. Burek JD (1978) Pathology of aging rats. CRC, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  6. Castanera TJ, Jones DC, Kimeldorf DJ, Rosen VJ (1968) The influence of whole-body exposure to x-rays or neutrons on the life span distribution of tumors among male rats. Cancer Res 28: 170–182PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Cheng L (1980) Pheochromocytoma in rats. Incidence, etiology, morphology, and functional activity. J Environ Pathol Microbiol 4: 219–228Google Scholar
  8. Coleman GL, Barthold S, Osbaldiston GW, Foster S, Jonas AM (1977) Pathological changes during aging in barrier-reared Fischer 344 male rats. J Gerontol 32: 258–278PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Crain RC (1958) Spontaneous tumors in the Rochester strain of the Wistar rat. Am J Pathol 34: 311–335PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. DeLellis RA, Merk FB, Deckers P, Warren S, Balogh K (1973) Ultrastructure and in vitro growth characteristics of a transplantable rat pheochromocytoma. Cancer 32: 227–235PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Diener RW, Rac VS, Thompson SW III, Spaet RH (1980) Review of the critical findings contained within DHHS Publication No. NIH 80–1749: Bioassay of reserpine for possible carcinogenicity. Toxicol Pathol 8: 1–21Google Scholar
  12. Eranko O (1960) Cell types of the adrenal medulla. In: Vane JR, Wolstenholme GEW, O’Connor M (eds) Adrenergic mechanisms. Little, Boston, pp 103–110Google Scholar
  13. Gilbert C, Gillman J, Loustalot P, Lutz W (1958) The modifying influence of diet and the physical environment on spontaneous tumour frequency in rats. Br J Cancer 12: 565–593PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gillman J, Gilbert C, Spence I (1953) Pheochromocytoma in the rat. Pathogenesis and collateral reactions and its relation to comparable tumours in man. Cancer 6: 494–511Google Scholar
  15. Goodman DG, Ward JM, Squire RA, Chu KC, Linhart MS (1979) Neoplastic and nonneoplastic lesions in aging F344 rats. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 48: 237–248PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hollander CF (1976) Current experience in using the laboratory rat in aging studies. Lab Anim Sci 26: 320–328PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Hollander CF, Snell KC (1976) Tumours of the adrenal gland.Google Scholar
  18. IARC Sci Publ 6: 273–295Google Scholar
  19. Jayne EP (1969) Atrophy and hyperplasia in the adrenal medulla. Geriatrics 24 (9): 115–119PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Kovacs K, Horvath E (1973) Ultrastructural features of the corticomedullary cells in a human adrenocortical adenoma and in rat adrenal cortex. Anat Anz 134: 387–393PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. MacKenzie WF, Garner FM (1973) Comparison of neoplasms in six sources of rats. J Natl Cancer Inst 50: 1243–1257Google Scholar
  22. Maekawa A, Odashima S (1975) Spontaneous tumors in ACI/N rats. J Natl Cancer Inst 55: 1437–1445PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Mohr U, Altoff J, Kinzel V (1969) Geschwülste des Neben- nierenmarkes bei der Ratte. Exp Pathol (Jena) 3: 153–158Google Scholar
  24. Moon HD, Simpson ME, Li CH, Evans H (1950) Neoplasms in rats treated with pituitary growth hormone. II. Adrenal glands. Cancer Res 10: 364–370Google Scholar
  25. Pollard M, Sharon N (1971) Irradiation-induced lesions in germfree rats. J Natl Cancer Inst 47: 229–234PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Prejean JD, Peckham JC, Casey AE, Griswold DP, Weisburger EK, Weisburger JH (1973) Spontaneous tumors in Sprague-Dawley rats and Swiss mice. Cancer Res 33: 2768–2773PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Rosai J (1981) Ackerman’s surgical pathology, 6th edn. Mosby, St. Louis, pp 705–727Google Scholar
  28. Rosen VJ, Castanera TJ, Jones DC, Kimeldorf DJ (1961) Islet-cell tumors of the pancreas in the irradiated and non-irradiated rat. Lab Invest 10: 608–616PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Russfield AB (1967) Pathology of the endocrine glands, ovary and testis of rats and mice. In: Cotchin E, Roe FJC (eds) Pathology of laboratory rats and mice. Blackwell Scientific, Oxford, chap 14Google Scholar
  30. Sass B, Rabstein LS, Madison R, Nims RM, Peters RL, Kelloff GJ (1975) Incidence of spontaneous neoplasms in F344 rats throughout the natural life span. J Natl Cancer Inst 54: 1449–1456PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Schardein JL, Fitzgerald JE, Kaump DH (1968) Spontaneous tumours in Holtzman-source rats of various ages. Vet Pathol 5: 238–252Google Scholar
  32. Snell KC (1965) Spontaneous lesions of the rat. In: Ribelin WE, McCoy JR (eds) Pathology of laboratory animals. Thomas, Springfield, chap 10Google Scholar
  33. Squire RA, Goodman DG, Valerio MG, Fredrickson TN, Strandberg JD, Levitt MH, Lingeman CH, Harshbarger JC, Dawe CJ (1978) Tumors. In: Benirschke K, Garner FM, Jones TC (eds) Pathology of laboratory animals. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, part 2, chap 12Google Scholar
  34. Staemmler M (1935) Die chronische Vergiftung mit Nicotin. Ergebnisse experimenteller Untersuchungen an Ratten. Virchows Arch [Pathol Anat] 295: 366–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Suzuki H, Mohr U, Kimmerie G (1979) Spontaneous endocrine tumors in Sprague-Dawley rats. J Cancer Res Clin On-col 95: 187–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Tarone RE, Chu KC, Ward JM (1981) Variability in the rates of some common naturally occurring tumors in Fischer 344 rats and (C57BL/6N x C3H/HeN) F1 (B6C3F1) mice. J Natl Cancer Inst 66: 1175–1181 Pheochromocytoma, Adrenal Medulla, Mouse 27Google Scholar
  37. Thompson SW, Hunt RD (1963) Spontaneous tumors in the Sprague-Dawley rat: incidence rates of some types of neoplasms as determined by serial section versus single section technics. Ann NY Acad Sci 108: 832–848CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Thompson SW, Huseby RA, Fox MA, Davis CL, Hunt RD (1961) Spontaneous tumors in the Sprague-Dawley rat. J Natl Cancer Inst 27: 1037–1057PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Thompson SW, Rac VS, Semonick DE, Antonchak B, Spaet RH, Schellhammer LE (1981) The adrenal medulla of rats. Thomas, SpringfieldGoogle Scholar
  40. Tilov T, Köllmer H, Weisse I, Stötzer H (1976) Spontan auftretende Tumoren des Rattenstammes Chbb: THOM ( SPF ). Arzneimittelforsch 26: 45–50Google Scholar
  41. Tischler AS, Greene LA (1978) Morphologic and cytochemical properties of a clonal line of rat adrenal pheochromocytoma cells which respond to nerve growth factor. Lab Invest 39: 77–89PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Von Seebach HB, Lützen L, Kreiner E, Ueberberg H, Pappritz G, Dhom G (1975) Morphology of aging in rat adrenals. Verh Dtsch Ges Pathol 59: 414–418Google Scholar
  43. Warren S, Chute RN (1972) Pheochromocytoma. Cancer 29: 327–331PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Warren S, Grozdev L, Gates O, Chute RN (1966) Radiation-induced adrenal medullary tumors in the rat. Arch Pathol 82: 115–118PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Yeakel EH (1947) Medullary hyperplasia of the adrenal gland in aged Wistar albino and gray Norway rats. Arch Pathol 44: 71–77Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • John D. Strandberg

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations