Advertisement

Mechanical Excitation and Scission of a Chain

  • Hans-Henning Kausch-Blecken von Schmeling
Part of the Polymers book series (POLYMERS, volume 2)

Abstract

A chain molecule as part of a thermoplastic body is in thermal contact with other chains and — at room temperature — constantly in motíon. The atoms vibrate and take part in the more or less hindered rotations of groups and even of chain segments. With no external forces acting all molecular entities try to approach — and fluctuate around — the most stable positions attainable to them. The action of external forces causes — or maintains — displacements of the chain from those positions and evokes retractive forces. Let us consider a chain or a bundle of chains in thermal contact with the surrounding and at constant volume. The condition of thermodynamic stability of such a system is that the free energy
$$F = U - TS$$
(5.1)
assume a minimum. The differential changes of the free energy of the system are given by the changes of its internal energy U and its entropy S.

Keywords

Chain Segment Chain Scission Mechanical Excitation Crystal Boundary Chain Tension 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References for Chapter 5

  1. 1.
    P. J. Flory: Principles of Polymer Chemistry, Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press 1953.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    L. R. G. Treloar: The Physics of Rubber Elasticity, 2nd Ed., London: Oxford University Press 1958, a) p. 61, b) p. 103ff, c) p. 108.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    H. M. James, E. Guth: J. Chem. Phys. 11, 455 (1943).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    A. Abe, R. L. Jernigan, P. J. Flory: J. Am. Chem. Soc. 88, 631 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    J. P. Flory, A. D. Williams: J. Polymer Sci. A-2,5, 399 (1967).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    P. R. Saunders: J. Polymer Sci. A-2, –, 3765 (1964).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    W. Pechhold: Kolloid-Z. Z. Polymere 225, 1 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    H. G. Zachmann: Kolloid-Z. Z. Polymere 257, 504 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    J. A. Sauer, A. E. Woodward: Polymer Thermal Analysis, II., P. E. Slade, Jr., and L. T. Jenkins, Eds., New York: Dekker, 1970, p. 107.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    P. B. Bowden: Polymer 9, 449–454 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    D. S. Boudreaux: J. Polymer Sci.: Polymer Phys. Ed. 11, 1285 (1973).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    W. J. Dulmage, L. E. Contois: J. Polymer Sci. 28, 275 –1958.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    T. R. Manley, C. G. Martin: Polymer 14, 491–496 (1973) and ibid. 632–638 (1973).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    H. Hahn, D. Richter: Colloid + Polymer Sci. 255, 111–119 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    E.g. J. Meixner: Handbuch der Physik, Vol. III/2, S. Flugge, Ed., Berlin: Springer-Verlag 1959, p. 413.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    D. Langbein: Theory of Van der Waal’s Attraction, Springer Tracts in Modern Physics, Vol. 72, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, 1974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    P. Lindenmeyer: Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Kyoto, Japan: Soc. Mat. Sci. 1972, Special Vol., p. 74.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    H. Scherr: Dissertation Universitát Ulm, Juli 1973.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    H. H. Kausch: J. Polymer Sci. C 32 (Polymer Symposia), 1 (1971).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    A. D. Chevychelov: Polymer Science USSR 8, 49 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    H. H. Kausch, D. Langbein: J. Polymer Sci., Polymer Physics, Ed. 11, 1201–1218 (1973).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    H. H. Kausch, J. Becht: Deformation and Fracture of High Polymers, H. H. Kausch., New York: Plenum Press 1973, p. 317.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    H. Baur, B. Wunderlich: Fortschr. Hochpolymeren Forsch. 7, 388 (1966).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    E. W. Fischer, G. Hinrichsen: Kolloid-Z. Z. Polymere 275, 28 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    J. D. Ferry: Viscoelastic Properties of Polymers, 2nd Edition, New York: J. Wiley and Sons, Inc. 1970.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    A. Kadim: Thesis, Dept. of Chem. Engng., Technion, Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel 1968.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    A. H. Abdel-Alim, A. E. Hamielec: J. Appl. Polymer Sci. 77, 3769–3778 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    J. W. Breitenbach, J. K. Rigler, B. A. Wolf: Makromol. Chemie 164, 353–355 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    A. M. Basedow, K. Ebert: Adv. Polymer Sci. (Fortschr. Hochpolymerenforsch.) 22, 83–143 (1977).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    E, M. Hagerman, C. C. Mentzer: J. Appl. Polymer Sci. 19, 1507–1520 (1975).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Yu. Ya. Gotlib, A. A. Darinskii: Vysokomol. soyed. A 16, 2296–2302 (1974), Polymer Science USSR 16, 2666 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    S. N. Zhurkov, V. E. Korsukov: J. Polym. Sci., Polymer Physics Ed. 12, 385–398 (1974).Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    E. A. Guggenheim: Handbuch der Physik, S. Fliigge, Ed., Vol. III/2. Berlin: Springer-Verlag 1959.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    S. Glasstone, K. J. Laidler, H. Eyring: The Theory of Rate Processes, New York: McGraw-Hill 1941.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    H. H. Kausch: J. Macromol. Sci., Revs. Macromol. Chem., C4 (2), 243–280 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    E. E. Tomashevskii: Soviet Physics - Solid State 12, 2588–2592 (1971).Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    S. N. Zhurkov, V. I. Vettegren, V. E. Korsukov: 2nd Internat. Conf. Fracture, Brighton, England April 1969, paper 47.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    H. I. Bernstein: Spectrochim. Acta 18, 161 (1962).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    P. J. Sheth, J. F. Johnson, R. S. Porter: Polymer 18, 741–742 (1977), C. B. Wu, P. J. Sheth, J. F. Johnson: Polymer 18, 822–824 (1977).Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    J. Skelton, W. D. Freeston, Jr., H. K. Ford: Appl. Polymer Symposia 12, 111–135 (1969).Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    U. G. Gafurov, I.I. Novak: Polymer Mechanics 6/1, 160–161 (1972).Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    S. N. Zhurkov, V. I. Vettegren, V. E. Korsukov, 1.1. Novak: Soviet Physics - Solid State 11/2, 233–237 (1969).Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    B. E. Read, D. A. Hughes,D. C. Barnes, F. W. M. Drury: Polymer 13, 485–494 (1972).Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    P. Bouriot: Premier Colloque du Groupe Franais de Physique des Polymeres, Strasbourg, 21–22 mai 1970.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    S. Sikka: PhD Thesis: Application of FTIR to study external stress effects on the PETP backbone, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, December 1976. S. Sikka, K. Knutson: to be published.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    V. S. Kuksenko, V. A. Ovchinnikov, A. I. Slutkser: Vysokomol. soyed All 9, 1953–1957 (1969).Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    H. Hahn: Personal communication.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hans-Henning Kausch-Blecken von Schmeling
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratoire des Polymères, Département des MatériauxÉcole Polytechnique Fédérale de LausanneSuisse

Personalised recommendations