Thermodynamics is concerned with systems with very large numbers of microscopic degrees of freedom. Consider for example one mole of a monatomic gas enclosed in a fixed volume. The number of atoms in this system is given by Advogadro’s number L = 6,025.1023. The mechanical state of motion of each of the atoms is characterized by each 3 coordinates for its position and its velocity. Hence, the number of the so-called microscopic degrees of freedom of the total system is f = 6 L.
KeywordsInternal Energy Entropy Production Heat Bath Thermodynamic System Extremum Principle
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