Burkitt’s Sarcoma

  • P. Clifford
  • V. A. Ngu


The eponym “Burkitt’s Tumour” or “African Lymphoma” has been adopted to distinguish a poorly differentiated lymphocytic lymphoma with a particular clinical presentation, initially described by Burkitt [4] occurring in African children in Uganda.


Epstein Barr Virus Cytosine Arabinoside African Child Tuberculous Peritonitis Single Large Dose 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Bell, T.M.: Isolation of Reovirus Type 3. In: Burkitt’s Lymphoma (eds. D.P. Burkitt & D.H. Wright) pp. 222–30. Edinburgh and London: E & S. Livingstone 1970.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bell, T.M., Massie, A., Ross, M.G.R., Williams, M. C.: Isolation of a Reovirus from a case of Burkitt’s Lymphoma. Brit. Med. J. 1, 1212 (1964).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bruce, W. R.: The action of chemotherapeutic agents at the cellular level and the effects of these agents on hematopoietic and lymphomatous tissue. Canadian Cancer Conference ed. J. F. Morgan et al. 1, 53–64, Oxford, London, Paris, Toronto, Frankfurt: Pergamon Press 1967.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Burkitt, D.: A sarcoma involving the jaws in African children. Brit. J. Surg. 46, 218 (1958).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Burkitt, D.: Observations on the geography of malignant lymphoma. E. Afr. Med. J. 38, 511 (1961).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Burkitt, D.: A tumour safari in East and Central Africa. Brit. J. Cancer 16, 379 (1962).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Burkitt, D.: A lymphoma syndrome dependent on environment. In: The lymphoma reticular tumours in Africa. (ed. F. C. Roulet) pp. 80–93. Basel and New York: Karger 1964.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Burkitt, D. P.: Geographical Distribution. In: Burkitt’s Lymphoma. (eds D. P. Burkitt and D. H. Wright) pp. 186–196 Edinburgh and London: E. & S. Livingstone 1970.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Burkitt, D.P.: Chapters 2 and 3 in: Burkitt’s Lymphoma. (eds. D.P. Burkitt and D.H. Wright). Edinburgh and London: E. & S. Livingstone 1970.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Burkitt, D., O’Conor, G.T.: Malignant Lymphoma in African children, a clinical syndrome. Cancer 14, 258 (1961).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Burkitt, D. P., Kyalwazi, S. K.: Spontaneous remission of African Lymphoma. Brit. J. Cancer 21, 14 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Clifford, P.: Treatment response to particular chemotherapeutic and other agents and treatment of C.N.S. involvement. In: Burkitt’s Lymphoma. (Eds. D.P. Burkitt & D.H. Wright.) Edinburgh and London: E. & S. Livingstone 1970.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Clifford, P.: Burkitt’s Lymphoma. In: Recent Advances in Cancer and Radiotherapeutics (ed. K.E. Halnan), pp. 113–157. Edinburgh and London: Churchill Livingstone 1972.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Clifford, P., Singh, S., Stjernswärd, J., Klein, G.: Long-term survival of patients with Burkitt’s Lymphoma, an assessment of treatment and other factors which may relate to survival. Cancer Research 27, 2578 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cockshott, W.P.: Radiological features. In: Burkitt’s Lymphoma. (ed. D.P. Burkitt & D.H. Wright) pp. 23–33. Edinburgh and London: E. & S. Livingstone 1970.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Cooper, E. H., Frank, G. L., Wright, D. H.: Cell proliferation in Burkitt Tumours. In: Cancer in Africa. (eds. P. Clifford, C.A. Linsell and G.L. Timms) pp. 259–63. East African Medical Journal, East African Publishing House, Nairobi, 1968.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Dalldorf, G., Linsell, G.A., Bornhort, F.E., Mortyn, R.: An epidemiologic approach to the lymphomas of African children and Burkitt’s sarcoma of the jaws. Persp. Biol. Med. 7, 435 (1964).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Deinhardt, F.: Herpesvirus saimiri. In: The Herpes Viruses (ed. A. Kaplan]) London and New York: Academic Press 197Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Epstein, M.A., Achong, B.G., Barr, Y.M.: Virus particles in cultured Iymphoblasta from Burkitt’s Lymphoma. Lancet 1964, I, 702.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Fass, L., Herberman, R. D., Ziegler, J.: Delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity to Burkitt lymphoma cells. New Eng. Med. J. 282, 776 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Fass, L., Heberman, R.B., Ziegler, J., Morrow, R. H.: Evaluation of the effects of remission plasma on untreated patients with Burkitt’s Lymphoma. J. Nat. Cancer Inst. 44, 145 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Haddow, A.J.: Epidemiological evidence suggesting an infective element in the aetiology. In: Burkitt’s Lymphoma. (eds. D.P. Burkitt & D.H. Wright), pp. 198–209. Edinburgh and London: E. & S. Livingstone 1970.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Harris, R.J.C.: The Aetiology of Murine Leukaemia — Lymphoma. In: Burkitt’s Lymphoma. (eds. D.P. Burkitt & D.H. Wright), pp. 215–21, Edinburgh and London: E. & S. Livingstone 1970.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Iversion, U., Iversion, O.H., Ziegler, J.L., Blumming, A.Z., Kyalwazi, S.K.: Cell kinetics of African cases of Burkitt’s lymphoma. Europ. J. Cancer 8, 305 (1972).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Janota, I.: Involvement of the Nervous System in Malignant Lymphoma in Nigeria. Brit. J. Cancer. 20,47 (1966).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kufe, D., MacGrath, I.T., Ziegler, J.L., Spiegelman, S.: Burkitt’s tumour contain particles encapsulating RNA-instructed DNA polymerase. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 70, 737 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Klein, G.: “A summing up”. In: Oncogenesis and the Herpes viruses. (eds. P.M. Briggs, G. de The and L. N. Payne). Lyons: I.A.R.C. Scientific Publications 1972.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Klein, G.: The Epstein Barr Virus (EBV). In: The Herpes viruses, ed. A. Kaplan. London and New York: Academic Press 1974.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Klein, G., Clifford, P., Klein, E., Stjernswärd, J.: Search for tumour specific immune reaction in Burkitt’s Lymphoma patients by the membrane immunofluorescence reaction. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 55, 1628 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Macgrath, I. T., Lwanga, S., Carswell, W., Harrison, N.: Surgical reduction of tumour bulk in management of abdominal Burkitt’s Lymphoma. Brit. Med. J. 1, 308 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ngu, V.A.: In “Treatment of Burkitt’s Tumour”. (eds. J.H. Burchenal and D.F. Burkitt), pp. 71–76. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer 1967.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ngu, V.A., Burkitt, D.P., Osunkoya, B.O.: In “Burkitt’s Lymphoma”, (eds. D.P. Burkitt and D. H. Wright) chapter 14. Edinburgh and London: E. and S. Livingstone 1970.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Norin, T., Clifford, P., Einhorn, J., Einhorn, N., Johannson, B., Klein, G., Onyango, J., de Schryver, A., Walstom, R.: Conventional and superfractionated radiation therapy in Burkitt’s Lymphoma. Acta. Radiol. 10, 545 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    O’Conor, G. T.: Malignant Lymphoma in African Children. A pathological entity. Cancer 14, 270 (1961).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Peters, W. P., Kufe, D., Schlom, J., Frankel, J. W., Prickett, C.O., Groupe, V., Spiegelman, S.: Biological and biochemical evidence for an interaction between Marek’s disease, herpes virus and avian leukosis in vivo. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 70, 3175 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Pike, M. C., Williams, E. H., Wright, B.: Burkitt’s tumour in the West Nile district of Uganda 1961–65. Brit. Med. J. 2, 395 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Pinkel, D., Simone, J. et al.: Total therapy of childhood acute lymphocytic leukaemia. Pediatrics 50, 246 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Steel, R.T., Yankee, R.A., Henderson, E.S.: J. Am. Med. Ass. 205, 863 (1965).Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Stjernswärd, J., Clifford, P., Singh, S., Svedmyr, E.: East Afr. Med. J. 45, 484 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Stjernswärd, J., Clifford, P., Svedmyr, E.: General and tumour distinctive cellular immunological reactivity. In: Burkitt’s lymphoma. (eds. D.P. Burkitt and D.H. Wright), pp. 164–171. Edinburgh and London: E. & S. Livingstone 1970.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Stutz, A.J., Greenberg, A.J., Wiley, A., Gilbert, E.F., Oppenheimer, J.: Burkitt’s lymphoma. The role of radiotherapy. Therapeutic Rad. 104, 379 (1972).Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Whittaker, L. R.: Burkitt’s lymphoma. Clin. Radiol. 24, 339 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Wright, D.H.: The epidemiology of Burkitt’s tumour. Cancer Research 27, 2424 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Wright, D. T.: Gross distribution and haematology. In: Burkitt’s Lymphoma (eds. D.P. Burkitt and D.H. Wright) pp. 64–81. Edinburgh and London: E. & S. Livingstone 1970.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Ziegler, J.L.: The management of Burkitt’s lymphoma. In: Medicine in a tropical environment (eds. A.G. Shaper, J.W. Kibukamusoka, and M.S.R. Hutt), pp. 196–212. London: British Medical Association 1972.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Ziegler, J. L.: Chemotherapy of Burkitt’s Lymphoma. Cancer 30, 1534 (1972).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Ziegler, J.L., Morrow, R.H., Fass, L., Kyalwazi, S. K., Carbone, P. P.: Treatment of Burkitt’s lymphoma with cyclophosphamide. Cancer 26, 474 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Ziegler, J. L., Blumming, A. Z.: Intrathecal chemotherapy in Burkitt’s lymphoma. Brit. Med. J. 1971, 2, 508.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Fialkow, P.J., Klein, G., Gartler, S.M., Clifford, P.: Evidence for the clonal origin of Burkitt’s lymphoma. Lancet 1970, I, 384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Oettgen, H. F., Clifford, P., Burkitt, D.: Malignant lymphomas of the jaw in African children: Treatment with alkylating substances and actiomycin D. Cancer Chemother. Rep. 28, 25 (1963).PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin · Heidelberg 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. Clifford
  • V. A. Ngu

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations